Неравенство в восприятии (у)личной безопасности в России

  • Арсений Веркеев National Research University Higher School of Economics, Saint Petersburg, Russia


Imagine walking home alone on a dark street. How safe do you feel? This is one of the many questions that constitute the subject of research on perceived safety. Being often considered as an indicator of the quality of life and well-being of the population, perceived safety receives great attention from social scientists and practitioners. However, in Russia this area remains underdeveloped. With the help of regression analysis, this article addresses the relationship between socio-demographic factors (independent variables) and the perception of street safety (dependent variable) by different groups of the Russian population. The article draws on four nationally representative samples obtained via two survey projects in the years 2010 and 2016: European Social Survey (ESS) and Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey — Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE). Two sources of data enable for data triangulation and help to overcome the limitations of previous research on perceived safety in Russia that relied on narrow nonprobability samples. The results suggest that despite the overall decline in the level of feelings of unsafety, inequality in perceived safety remains stable in Russia. A more intense feeling of unsafety after dark in the area of residence is reported by: women; residents of large cities; older people; people with poor subjective health; people who have faced criminal victimization. No stable relationship was found between the feeling of unsafety and the level of education. In addition, interaction effects of age and gender and curvilinear effects of age are examined. Young men are the least susceptible to feeling unsafe. Older men have an increased feeling of unsafety as opposed to younger men but older women are no different from younger women in this regard.


Bagina Y.A. (2019) Strah i trevoga kak chast’ zhenskih prostranstvennyh istoriy v gorode [Fear and Anxiety as a Part of Women’s Spatial Stories in the City]. Interaktsiya. Intervyu. Interpretatsiya [Interaction. Interview. Interpretation], 11(17): 46–60 (in Russian).

Barni D., Vieno A., Roccato M., Russo S. (2016) Basic Personal Values, the Country’s Crime Rate and the Fear of Crime. Social Indicators Research, 129(3): 1057–1074.

Baumer T., DuBow F. (1977) Fear of crime in the polls: What they do and do not tell us. Northwestern University.

Chadee D., Chadee M. (2016) Media and Fear of Crime: An Integrative Model. In: Chadee D. (ed.) Psychology of Fear, Crime and the Media: International Perspectives. London: Routledge: 58–78.

Ferraro K.F. (1996) Women’s Fear of Victimization: Shadow of Sexual Assault? Social Forces, 75(2): 667–690.

Ferraro K.F., LaGrange R. (1987) The Measurement of Fear of Crime. Sociological Inquiry, 57(1): 70–97.

Gurinskaya A.L. (2019) Tsifrovoe upravlenie v sfere obespecheniya bezopasnosti: vospriyatie molodymi grazhdanami novyh strategiy politseyskoy deyatel’nosti v Rossii [Digital governance of security: young citizens' perceptions of new policing strategies in Russia]. In: Gosudarstvo i grazhdane v elektronnoy srede: Trudy XXII Mezhdunarodnoy obyedinennoy nauchnoy konferentsii “Internet i sovremennoye obschestvo”, IMS–2019. Sankt-Peterburg, 19–22 iyunya 2019 g. Vypusk 3 [State and Citizens in the Electronic Environment: Proceedings of the XXII International Joint Scientific Conference «Internet and Modern Society», IMS–2019, St. Petersburg, June 19–22, 2019). Vol. 3]. St. Petersburg: Universitet ITMO: 116–131 (in Russian).

Hummelsheim D., Hirtenlehner H., Jackson J., Oberwittler D. (2011) Social Insecurities and Fear of Crime: A Cross-National Study on the Impact of Welfare State Policies on Crime-related Anxieties. European Sociological Review, 27(3): 327–345.

Kozyreva P.M., Smirnov A.I. (2019) (Bez)opasniy kvartal: kak otsenivaetsa uroven’ ulichnoy prestupnosti [(Un)safe neighborhood: how street crime level is evaluated]. In: Gorshkov M.K. (ed.) Rossiya reformiruyushayasya: ezhegodnik: vyp. 17 [Russia reforming: yearly publication: volume 17]. Moscow: Noviy Hronograf: 454–477 (in Russian).

Krulichová E. (2019) The relationship between fear of crime and risk perception across Europe. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 19(2): 197–214.

Kujala P., Kallio J., Niemelä M. (2019) Income Inequality, Poverty, and Fear of Crime in Europe. Cross-Cultural Research, 53(2): 163–185.

LaGrange R.L., Ferraro K.F., Supancic M. (1992) Perceived Risk and Fear of Crime: Role of Social and Physical Incivilities. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 29(3): 311–334.

Rader N.E., Cossman J.S., Porter J.R. (2012) Fear of crime and vulnerability: Using a national sample of Americans to examine two competing paradigms. Journal of Criminal Justice, 40(2): 134–141.

Reese B. (2009) Determinants of the Fear of Crime: The Combined Effects of Country-Level Crime Intensity and Individual-Level Victimization Experience. International Journal of Sociology, 39(1): 62–75.

Semyonov M., Gorodzeisky A., Glikman A. (2012) Neighborhood Ethnic Composition and Resident Perceptions of Safety in European Countries. Social Problems, 59(1): 117–135.

Smith T.W. (1978) In Search of House Effects: A Comparison of Responses to Various Questions by Different Survey Organizations. Public Opinion Quarterly, 42(4): 443–463.

Stanko E.A. (1995) Women, Crime, and Fear. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 539(1): 46–58.

Valentine G. (1992) Images of Danger: Women’s Sources of Information about the Spatial Distribution of Male Violence. Area, 24(1): 22–29.

van Kesteren J., Mayhew P., Nieuwbeerta P. (2000) Criminal Victimization in Seventeen Industrialised Countries: Key Findings from the 2000 International Crime Victims Survey. WODC / Ministerie van Justitie.

Vauclair C.-M., Bratanova B. (2017) Income inequality and fear of crime across the European region. European Journal of Criminology, 14(2): 221–241.

Visser M., Scholte M., Scheepers P. (2013) Fear of Crime and Feelings of Unsafety in European Countries: Macro and Micro Explanations in Cross-National Perspective. The Sociological Quarterly, 54(2): 278–301.

Volkov V.V. (2012) Silovoe predprinimatel’stvo, XXI vek: ekonomiko-sotsiologicheskiy analiz [Violent entrepreneurship, XXI century: economic-sociological analysis], St. Petersburg: Izdatel’stvo Evropeyskogo universiteta v Sankt-Peterburge (in Russian).

Wheelock D., Semukhina O., Demidov N.N. (2011) Perceived Group Threat and Punitive Attitudes in Russia and The United States. The British Journal of Criminology, 51(6): 937–959.

Zdravomyslova E.A., Temkina A.A. (2018) Chto takoe “maskulinnost’”? Ponyatiyniye otmychki kriticheskih issledovaniy muzhchin i maskulinnostey [What is “Masculinity”? Conceptual Keys to Critical Studies in Men and Masculinities], Monitoring obshchestvennogo mneniya: Ekonomichekie i Sotsial'nye Peremeny [Monitoring of Public Opinion: Economic and Social Changes], 6: 48–73 (in Russian).

Как цитировать
Веркеев, А. (2021). Неравенство в восприятии (у)личной безопасности в России. ЖУРНАЛ СОЦИОЛОГИИ И СОЦИАЛЬНОЙ АНТРОПОЛОГИИ, 24(3), 169-192. извлечено от http://jourssa.ru/jourssa/article/view/2343
Исследования неравенства