За пределами города: роль средств коммуникации в повседневности дауншифтеров

  • Алена Макшанчикова Национальный исследовательский университет "Высшая школа экономики", Москва, Россия


The article focuses on downshifting among the modern Russian intelligentsia as a type of spatial mobility associated with leaving cities and the general trend of de-urbanization. The author examines the migration of intellectuals out of the city, the format and nature of mobile infocommunications in the everyday practices of the migrants. The emergence and development of internet communication greatly simplifies travel over long distances (within the country, to neighboring countries, to other continents). One of the varieties of this mobility is associated with relocation to out-of-city spaces and a slowdown in the pace of life — downshifting, accompanied by a fundamental simplification of consumer needs and, in general, a change in the lifestyle. At the same time, the life of downshifters becomes closely associated with remote work, becoming a primary need to maintain an economic source of livelihood. The number of professions and specialties that allow working online is constantly growing. The attitude of downshifters to modern infocommunications in the context of life outside the urban environment is investigated and a typology of the role of modern means of communication in the everyday practices of downshifters is proposed. The supporting empirical material was gathered during fieldwork in the Manturovsky District of the Kostroma Region (2015–2017) where 37 in-depth interviews were conducted with residents of small settlements, supplemented by 10 in-depth interviews with informants living in small settlements in other regions of Russia. In the historical and anthropological perspective the author highlights the process of “production” of new localities (A. Appadurai) — the transfer of the meanings of urban life to the out-of-city space and the emergence of a new life world.


Berger P.L., Luckmann T. (1966) The Social Construction of Reality. A Treatise on sociology of Knowledge. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books.

Berry B. (1976) The Counter-Urbanization Process: Urban America Since 1970. In: Berry B. (ed.) Urbanization and Counter-Urbanization. Urban affairs annual review, 11.

Bogomolova E.I. (2014) Lichnostnaya identichnost' v usloviyah virtualizacii bytiya [Personal Identity At Virtualization Of Being]. Chelovek. Soobshchestvo. Upravlenie [Human. Community. Management], 2: 104–120 (in Russian).

Bourdieu P. (1990) Structures, habitus, practices. In: Bourdieu P. The logic of practice. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Castells M. (2010) The Rise of the Network Society: The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Champion A. (1990) Counterurbanization: The Changing Pace and Nature of Population Deconcentration. London: Edward Arnold.

Elgin D. (1981) Voluntary simplicity: Toward a way of life that is outwardly simple, inwardly rich. New York: Harper-Collins.

Erikson E. (2006) Identichnost': yunost' i krizis [Identity: youth and crisis]. Moscow: Flinta (in Russian).

Giddens A. (1990) The consequences of modernity. Cambridge: Polity.

Gurova O.N., Tolkacheva A.N. (2014) Kriticheskij podkhod k potrebleniyu [A critical approach to consumption]. Labirint. Zhurnal socialno-gumanitarnykh issledovaniy [Labyrinth. Journal of Social and Humanitarian Research], 2: 4–8 (in Russian).

McLuhan G. M. (2003) Ponimaniye Media: Vneshniye rasshireniya cheloveka [Understanding Media: External Human Extensions]. Moscow; Zhukovsky: KANON-Press-Ts; Kuchkovo Pole (in Russian).

Mitchell C.J., Bunting T.E., Piccioni M. (2004) Visual artists: counter‐urbanites in the Canadian countryside? Canadian Geographer / Le Géographe canadien, 48(2): 152–167.

Ouye J.A. (2011) Five Trends that are Dramatically Changing Work and the Workplace. Knoll Workplace Research [https://www.knoll.com/document/1352940439324/WP_FiveTrends.pdf] (accessed: 01.12.2020).

Park R., Burgess E. (eds.) (1925) The City. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Parsons T. (1998) Sistema sovremennyh obshchestv [The system of modern societies]. Moscow: Aspekt Press (in Russian).

Pokrovskiy N.E. (2003) V zerkale globalizacii [In the Mirror of Globalization]. Otechestvennye zapiski [Domestic notes], 1. (in Russian).

Pokrovskiy N.E. (2014) Blizhnij Sever v kontekste mirovyh trendov (voprosy teorii). [The Middle North in the context of global trends (theoretical questions)]. In: Pokrovskiy N.E., Nefedova T.G. (eds.) Potencial Blizhnego Severa. Ekonomika, ekologiya, sel'skie poseleniya. [The potential of the Near North. Economy, ecology, rural settlements]. Moscow: Logos (in Russian).

Pokrovskiy N.E., Nefedova T.G., Treyvish A.I. (2016) Gorizontal'naya mobil'nost': urbanizaciya, dezurbanizacii i sel'sko-gorodskie soobshchestva. [Horizontal mobility: urbanization, de-urbanization and rural-urban communities. Townspeople in the village. Sociological Research in the Russian Outback: De-urbanization and Rural-Urban Communities. Comp. and scientific.] In: Ilyin V.I., Pokrovskiy N.E. (eds.) Gorozhane v derevne. Sotsiologicheskiye issledovaniya v rossiyskoy glubinke: Dezurbanizatsiya i sel'sko-gorodskiye soobshchestva. Moscow: Universitetskaya kniga [University book]: 33–56 (in Russian).

Pokrovskiy N.E., Nikolaeva U.G., Demidova Y.A. (2019) Fenomenologiya zhiznennogo mira gorozhanina vo vnegorodskom prostranstve Blizhnego Severa: dom i domestikatsiya. [Phenomenology of the life world of a city dweller in the extra-urban space of the Near North: home and domestication.] Sotsiologicheskiye issledovaniya [Sociological Research], 12: 70–80 (in Russian).

Pokrovsky N., Guseva U. (2012) Alternative to Urbanization. livebetter Magazine, 19(4): 7–23.

Popov D.S. (2016) Social'no-istoricheskij portret rossijskoj intelligencii. Voprosy istorii i teorii. [Socio-historical portrait of the Russian intelligentsia.] In: Ilyin V.I., Pokrovskiy N.E. (eds.) Gorozhane v derevne. Sotsiologicheskiye issledovaniya v rossiyskoy glubinke: Dezurbanizatsiya i sel'sko-gorodskiye soobshchestva. [Questions of history and theory. Townspeople in the village.] M.: Universitetskaya kniga: 161–189 (in Russian).

Sassen S. (2001) The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Simmel G. (1996) Problema sotsiologii. In: Zapadno-evropejskaya sociologiya XIX — nachala XX vekov: Teksty. Moscow: Izdaniye Mezhdunarodnogo Universiteta Biznesa i Upravleniya: 415–435 (in Russian).

Simmel G. (2002) Bol'shie goroda i dukhovnaya zhizn. Logos, 3 (in Russian).

Sorokin P.A., Zimmerman C.C. (1929) Principles of Rural-Urban Sociology. New York: Henry Holtand Company.

Spencer H. (1996) Osnovaniya sociologii. In: Zapadno-evropejskaya sociologiya XIX veka: Teksty [Foundations of Sociology. Western European sociology of the nineteenth century: Texts. M.: Izdaniye Mezhdunarodnogo Universiteta Biznesa i Upravleniya [Edition of the International University of Business and Management]: 279–321 (in Russian).

Strauss A., Corbin J. (2001) Osnovy kachestvennogo issledovaniya: obosnovannaya teoriya, procedury i tekhniki [Fundamentals of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory, Procedures and Techniques]. Moscow: Editorial URSS (in Russian).

Thoreau H. D. (1854) W. or Life in the Woods. Boston: Ticknor and Fields.

Tönnies F. (2002) Obshchnost' i obshchestvo [Community and Society]. St. Petersburg: Vladimir Dal' (in Russian).

Urry J. (2012) Sociologiya za predelami obshchestv: vidy mobil'nosti dlya XXI stoletiya [Sociology Beyond Societies: Types of Mobility for the 21st Centu]. Moscow: Izd. dom Vysshej shkoly ekonomiki (in Russian).

V Identity: youth and crisis an Dijk J. (1999) The Network Society: Social Aspects of New Media. London: SAGE.

Voyskunskiy A.E., Evdokimenko A.S., Fedunina N.Y. (2013) Setevaya i real'naya identichnost': Sravnitel'noe issledovanie [Networked and Real Identity: A Comparative Study]. Psikhologiya: Zhurnal Vysshey shkoly ekonomiki [Psychology: Journal of the Higher School of Economics], 10(2): 98–121 (in Russian).

Weber M. (1978) Economy and Society [Economy and Society]. Vol. 1. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Weber M. (2001) Istoriya khozyaiystva [History of the economy]. Moscow: Kanon-Press (in Russian).

Zvyagincev V., Neuvazhaeva M. (2015) Pereselency iz goroda v sel'skuyu mestnost': fenomen «obratnoj» migracii v sovremennoj Rossii [Migrants from the city to the countryside: the phenomenon of "reverse" migration in modern Russia]. Mir Rossii [World of Russia], 1: 101–135 (in Russian).

Как цитировать
Макшанчикова, А. (2020). За пределами города: роль средств коммуникации в повседневности дауншифтеров. ЖУРНАЛ СОЦИОЛОГИИ И СОЦИАЛЬНОЙ АНТРОПОЛОГИИ, 23(5), 155-177. извлечено от http://jourssa.ru/jourssa/article/view/2313