Экологический активизм: мобилизация ресурсов «мусорных» протестов в России в 2018–2020 гг.
The article describes the results of a sociological study of “garbage” protests in Russia in 2018–2020 based on the example of mass protest actions of the population regarding the construction of a landfill near the Shies railway station in the Arkhangelsk region. The authors analyzed four main aspects of the mobilization process (resources, mobilization, organization, results), which allowed us to get answers to the following questions: what resources are the most important for an emergence of a protest movement and a successful achievement of its goals; how social and political structures create opportunities for mobilization (or hinder this process); who is involved (recruited) in the movement; what is the motion recruitment pool; what is the role of the participants; what forms of organization are most effective to achieve the set goals; what factors should be considered key when analyzing the results of the movement. In the course of the study, it became apparent that social media and digital network participation play an extremely important role in the process of mobilizing the protest movement, choosing and concentrating resources, finding the optimal forms of organization for achieving success and obtaining meaningful results. In this regard, the article highlights the results of an empirical study on the analysis of the social networks’ utilization to draw users' attention to conflicts around landfills in the Arkhangelsk region and in the neighboring regions of the Russian North, using the example of the social network VKontakte. The authors of the article attempted to show that the study of traditional forms of offline activism and the analysis of passive political participation through social media provides the most complete, holistic picture of the protest behavior of participants and provides good research opportunities for an integrated approach to studying the problem.
Akhremenko A.S., Filippov I.B (2019) Vliyanie silovogo podavleniya protesta na obsuzhdenie protestnoj akcii v social'nyh setyah [Impact of the Violent Suppression of Protest on its Discussion in Social Networks]. Monitoring obshchestvennogo mneniya: Ekonomicheskie i social'nye peremeny [Monitoring of Public Opinion: Economic and Social Changes], 5: 200–225 (in Russian). https://doi.org/10.14515/monitoring.2019.5.10
Blokov I.P. (2018) Okruzhayushchaya sreda i eyo ohrana v Rossii. Izmeneniyaza 25 let [Environment and its protection in Russia. Changes over 25 years]. Moscow: Sovet Grinpis (in Russian).
Chmel K.Sh., Klimova A.M., Mitrokhina A.M. (2020) Politizaciya ekologicheskogo diskursa v Arhangel'skoj oblasti na primere musornogo poligona okolo stancii Shies [The politicization of environmental discourse in Arkhangelsk region: the landfill siteat shies railroad station]. Zhurnal issledovaniy socialnoy politiki [The Journal of Social Policy Studies], 18(1): 83–98 (in Russian). https://doi.org/10.17323/727-0634-2020-18-1-83-98
Denisova A. (2017) Democracy, protest and public sphere in Russia after the 2011–2012 anti-government protests: digital media at stake. Media, Culture & Society, 7: 976–994. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443716682075
Dennis J. (2019) Beyond Slacktivism Political Participation on Social Media. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Enikolopov R., Makaryin A., Petrova M. (2015) Social'nye media i politicheskie protesty [Social media and political protests]. Vestnik obshchestvennogo mneniya [Public Opinion Bulletin], 3–4: 149–159. (in Russian). https://doi.org/10.24411/2070–5107–2015–00024
Howard P., Hussain M. (2013) Democracy's Fourth Wave? Digital Media and the Arab Spring. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ivanov D.A. (2013) Rol' virtual'nyh social'nyh setej v politicheskom proteste (Permskij sluchaj, 2011–2012 gg.) [The Role of Virtual Social Networks in Political Protest (Perm Case, 2011–2012)]. Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Politologiya [Perm University Bulletin. Political science], 1: 52–59(in Russian).
Jil Q., Harlow S., Cui D., Wang Z. (2018) Discussing Environmental Issues in Chinese Social Media: An Analysis of Greenpeace China’s Weibo Posts and Audience Responses. The Journal of Social Media in Society, 1: 37–60.
Khovavko I.Y. (2020) Ekonomicheskij analiz «musornyh konfliktov» (na primere sovremennoj Rossii) [Economic analysis of “garbage conflicts” (The example of modern Russia)]. Ekonomicheskaya nauka sovremennoj Rossii [Economics of Contemporary Russia], 1: 55–67 (in Russian). https://doi.org/10.33293/1609-1442-2020-1
Kim Y., Shin E., Cho K. (2015) SNS Dependency and Community Engagement in Urban Neighborhoods. Communication Research, 1: 7–32. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650215588786
Lee F. (2015) Internet, citizen self-mobilisation, and social movement organisations in environmental collective action campaigns: two Hong Kong cases. Environmental Politics, 2: 308–325. https://doi.org/10.1080/09644016.2014.919749.
Lee F., Chan J. (2018) Media and Protest Logics in the Digital Era: The UmbrellaMovement in Hong Kong.Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Madhavi T. (2018) Importance of Social Media to Create Environmental Awareness in Sustainable Higher Education System In: Narula S., Rai S, Sharma A. (eds.) Environmental Awareness and the Role of Social Media. Hershey: IGI Global: 72–81.
McCarthy J., Smith J., Zald M. (1996) Accessing Public, Media, Electoral, and Governmental Agendas. In: MacAdam D., McCarthy J., Zald M. (eds.) Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 291–311.
McCarthy J., Zald M. (1973) The Trend of Social Movements in America: Professionalization and Resource Mobilization. Morristown, N.J.: General Learning.
Nikolayenko O. (2019) Framing and counter-framing a Peace March in Russia: the use of Twitter during a hybrid war. Social Movement Studies, 5: 602–621.
Noskov I.A., Zheleztsov M.L., Ternovskov V.B. (2019) Problemy sostoyaniya okruzhayushchej sredyi prozhivaniya naseleniya v rajonah musornyh poligonov v sovremennoj Rossii [Problems of the state of the environment and population living in areas of landfills in modern Russia]. Nauchnyj aspekt [Scientific aspect], 2: 733–741(in Russian).
Platonov K.A., Yudina D.I. (2019) Povestka protestnyh onlajn-soobshchestv Sankt-Peterburgavo «VKontakte» [Agenda of Vkontakte online protest communities based in St Petersburg]. Monitoring obshchestvennogo mneniya: Ekonomicheskie i social'nye peremeny [Monitoring of Public Opinion: Economic and Social Changes], 5: 226–249 (in Russian). https://doi.org/10.14515/monitoring.2019.5.11
Rogov K. (2019) Informacionnyj razryv: otnoshenie k protestam kak dolgosrochnyj vyzov [Information divide: treating protests as a long-term challenge]. In: Rogov K. (ed.) Vstrechnaya mobilizaciya. Moskovskie protesty i regional'nye vybory — 2019. Analiticheskij doklad. Seriya «Liberal'naya missiya-Ekspertiza» [Counter mobilization. Moscow Protests and Regional Elections — 2019. Analytical report. Series “Liberal Mission-Expertise”. Issue 7]. Moscow: Fond «Liberal'naya missiya»:76–90 (in Russian).
Shamanova G.L., Mayorov O.V. (2019) Ekologicheskie protesty kak forma proyavleniya grazhdanskoj aktivnosti [Environmental protests as a form of civic activity]. Social'nye i gumanitarnye znaniya[Social and humanitarian knowledge], 5(3): 200–207 (in Russian).
Sokolov A.V., Levchenko I.A. (2017) Osobennosti privlecheniya resursov protestuyushchimi [Features of attraction f resources by protesters]. Vlast[Authority], 10: 53–59 (in Russian).
Sokolov A.V., Palagicheva A.V. (2018) Podmoskovnye protesty protiv musornyh poligonov: mekhanizmy politicheskoj demobilizacii [Moscow Region protests against landfills: mechanisms of political demobilization]. In: Evstifeev R. (ed.) Rossijskaya gosudarstvennost' v XXI veke: nacional'naya identichnost' iistoricheskaya pamyat' v usloviyah global'noj konkurencii. Materialy nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii [Russian statehood in the XXI century: national identity and historical memory in the context of global competition. Materials of the scientific and practical conference]. Vladimir: Vladimir Branch of RANEPA: 190–194 (in Russian).
Theocharis Y. (2015) The Conceptualization of Digitally Networked Participation. Social Media + Society, July-December: 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305115610140
Tsepilova O.D. (2019) Politicheskoe i social'no-ekonomicheskoe razvitie sovremennoj Rossii: ekologicheskie ogranicheniya i riski [Political and socio-economic development of modern Russia: environmental obstacles and risks]. Teleskop [Telescope],6: 20–27 (in Russian).
Tyutyundzhi I. (2012) Novyef ormy social'nogo aktivizma [New forms of social activism]. Sotsiologicheskiye issledovaniya [Sociological Studies], 5: 149–153 (in Russian).
Volkov D., Goncharov S. (2017) Rossijskij media landshaft: osnovnye tendencii ispol'zovaniya SMI [Russian media landscape: main trends in the use of the media]. levada-centr [Levada-Center] [https://www.levada.ru/2017/08/22/16440 ] (accessed: 10.11.2019) (in Russian).
Zald M., McCarty J. (eds.) (1987) Social Movements in an Organizational Society. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books.