Неравенства в здоровье и психологические ресурсы личности в европейских странах
The article examines the problem of the dependence of the state of health and its social structuring on the psychological resources of the individual and the characteristics of the manifestation of these dependencies in macro-social contexts. The analysis of survey data from the European Social Survey (ESS) relating to two groups of countries — with a weak and a strong social state, was carried out using regression modeling with indirect effects, which allows to compare parallel mediators, as well as to reveal the moderated mediation by contextual factors. The results confirm theoretical considerations about the important role of psychological resources, including 'autonomy-control', 'optimism', 'high personal self-esteem', 'resilience' and 'competence', for health, as measured by the self-rated scale, — their deficiency negatively affects health status. These resources also contribute in some way to explaining socio-structural inequalities in health related to education, occupational status and subjective status. They act as a mediator, linking the position of individuals in the social structure with their self-rated health, since psychological resources are unevenly distributed across the social structure, with a deficit in the lower strata, and are important for health. It has been shown that mediative psychological effects depend on the macro public context — they are more pronounced in countries with low public social spending and less pronounced in developed social democracies with high rates of such spending. This conclusion refers to inequalities in education and profession, but not in subjective status — in this case, mediation was equally distinct in all countries.
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