Мигранты как «лица, подверженные идеологии терроризма». Институциональный анализ российского кейса секьюритизации миграции
In the last twenty years, in Russia and abroad, migration has increasingly been presented as a security problem, or more narrowly, as a source of terrorist threat. Securitization theory allows us to understand how this process unfolds at the level of discourses (Copenhagen School) and non-discursive practices (Paris School). However, institutional aspects of migration securitization rarely come to the attention of researchers. This article attempts to analyze the role of institutions using a Russian case study of the transformation of migrants into “individuals exposed to the ideology of terrorism”. The empirical basis for the research was a corpus of federal and regional documents related to implementing the Comprehensive Plan to Counter the Ideology of Terrorism in the Russian Federation for 2013–2018 and the Comprehensive Plan to Counter the Ideology of Terrorism in the Russian Federation for 2019–2021. Analysis of document sources made it possible to trace the institutional mechanisms of migration securitization, establish the main circle of actors involved in this process, and determine the practices through which it is implemented. The research showed that a key role in migration securitization is played by the bureaucratic field and the multitude of agents in it, both security and non-security professionals. Performative and perlocutionary speech acts securitizing migration are contained in federal plans, which, going down the bureaucratic chain to the field, generate a mass of derivative planning documents that involve ever more implementers in ever more activities aimed at preventing the “terrorist threat” posed by migrants.
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