«Сила местных сообществ»: практики, механизмы и модели участия жителей в социокультурном развитии территории (на примере малых населенных пунктов Вологодской области)
The problematic of this article is rooted in the issue of the role of active local communities in the development of territories. The materials are presented on the basis of empirical research by small territories at the Vologda region. The formulation of the question presupposes an analysis of the classic contradiction between social structure and people's actions in accordance with the theoretical and methodological logic of the integrative approach (P. Bourdieu, E. Giddens). On the one hand, the structure dictates certain rules of interaction and activity in the interior space. On the other hand, residents as communities participate in stimulating resource distribution processes. The results are attracting resources to small areas and the emergence of new ones within communities. The article includes theoretical, methodological and empirical parts. The first part consist of analysis of model of territorial structure as a kind of social structure and analysis of approaches to definition of local communities. Empirical material was founded on the basis of included observation and case studies of small towns and villages in eight municipal districts in the Vologda region (2017–2020). Research methods include interviews, observation, document analysis, questionnaire survey, focus groups, etc. The scientific novelty of the research consists of ethnographic description and systematization of the varieties of the most typical practices constructing of active local communities in small territories (practices are based on proactive leadership, localization of a social problem, solidarity of values and interests, production of project solutions); mechanisms of involving communities in development of territories (public discussions, proactive budgeting, crowdfunding, project activities, activities of the non-profit sector, information networks, constructing of tourist showplaces, mechanisms of community and investment); models of community participation in the development of small territories. The main conclusion is substantiation of system management model of initiatives as a predictive model.
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