Методология истории А.С. Лаппо-Данилевского в российских университетах
The article considers the problem of Lappo-Danilevsky's theoretical contribution to the development of Russian historical methodology and the realization of the results obtained in the teaching practice in Russian universities. The author recognizes that Lappo-Danilevsky contributed not only to the methodology of history, but also to sociology. Since sociology was not taught directly at St Petersburg University in the early twentieth century, many questions of social knowledge were addressed in his lectures on the methodology of history. Attention is drawn to the fundamental principles underlying the theory of historical knowledge and the methodology of source study developed by the outstanding scientist: the principle of historical totality, causality and expediency, the principle of conditions for existence, the systematic unity of knowledge, the unity of human nature and others' spirituality, historical assessment in choosing facts; the principle of consensus and evolution. Philosophical and methodological reflection of the foundations of historical knowledge allowed Lappo-Danilevsky to go beyond the traditional historiographical consideration of the problems of historical knowledge and create his own concept of history methodology, which integrated the achievements of contemporary science: the methodological school, the psychological school of W. Wundt, hermeneutics by W. Dilthey and the Baden school of philosophy of history. The purpose of the study is to reveal the peculiarities of formation and development of the Russian methodology of history from the middle of the 80-s of the 19th century to the 20-s of the 20th century, as well as the implementation of the principles and conclusions of Lappo-Danilevsky's conception in educational practice of Russian universities. The application of intercultural methodology, comparative method, and reactualization of the philosophic-historical heritage of A.S. Lappo-Danilevsky contributed to the identification of both fundamental differences and similarities between his concept and theoretical-methodological constructions of M.M. Khvostov, L.P. Karsavin, revealing the significance of the "Methodology of history" for theoretical understanding of current problems of humanitarian knowledge, training of historians. It is noted that through the efforts of students and followers of Lappo-Danilevsky his creative legacy was included in teaching in Russian universities, but it concerned mainly the methodology of source study. The theory of historical knowledge, which today is more often perceived as the methodology of humanitarian knowledge in general, still requires rehabilitation after many years of neglect and the need to make it a part of the curriculum in Russian universities.
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