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ФОРМАЛЬНЫЕ И НЕФОРМАЛЬНЫЕ ГРАЖДАНСКИЕ ИНФРАСТРУКТУРЫ: СОВРЕМЕННЫЕ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ ГОРОДСКОГО ЛОКАЛЬНОГО АКТИВИЗМА В РОССИИ

Анна Александровна Желнинаab(azhelnina@gmail.com),

Елена Валерьевна Тыкановаb(elenatykanova@gmail.com)

aНИУ ВШЭ в Санкт-Петербурге, Санкт-Петербург, Россия

bСоциологический институт РАН — филиал ФНИСЦ РАН, Санкт-Петербург, Россия

Цитирование: Желнина А.А., Тыканова Е.В. Формальные и неформальные гражданские инфраструктуры: современные исследования городского локального активизма в России. Журнал социологии и социальной антропологии, 22(1): 162–192. https://doi.org/10.31119/jssa.2019.22.1.8

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Аннотация. Предпринята попытка анализа академической дискуссии вокруг локального активизма в современной России в области оспаривания городских территорий, а также выявления специфики российского городского активизма в международном контексте. Авторы отказываются от традиционного описания российских городских процессов в «постсоветской» и «постсоциалистической» риторике и сопоставляют результаты российских исследований с тем, как городской локальный активизм описывается и теоретизируется в городах глобального Севера и глобального Юга. На основании проведенного исследования, авторы предлагают новое понятие «гражданские инфраструктуры», наиболее релевантное для анализа городского локального активизма, а также различают «формальные» и «неформальные» гражданские инфраструктуры. Под формальными гражданскими инфраструктурами понимаются юридически закрепленные инструменты участия, доступные гражданам, такие как голосование, участие в добровольных организациях, муниципальное самоуправление, самоорганизация и кооперация собственников жилья, партиципаторное бюджетирование. Неформальные гражданские инфраструктуры включают в себя неформальные объединения, сети знакомых и друзей, а также мировоззрения и идеи обычных горожан , ориентированные на создание и поддержание некоего общего блага. Авторы следуют общему определению инфраструктуры как совокупности технологий и практик, обеспечивающих функционирование системы, в данном случае системы гражданского участия в городском управлении. Авторы приходят к выводу, что в ходе постепенно увеличивающихся драматических случаев оспаривания городского пространства в современной России парадоксальным образом развиваются неформальные гражданские инфраструктуры. Все более выраженными становятся мировоззрение, субъектность и политизированность горожан, готовых принимать активное участие в судьбе своих городов. В то же время формальные гражданские инфраструктуры не предоставляют гражданам адекватных возможностей для такого участия. На основе «стратегической интеракционной перспективы» авторы предлагают комплексную модель изучения городского локального активизма в России, чувствительную к взаимодействию игроков, вовлеченных в процессы трансформации городских территорий, и интеграции формальных и неформальных гражданских инфраструктур, которые могли бы выступить в качестве основы успешного функционирования гражданского общества и эффективного решения городских конфликтов.

Ключевые слова: городское пространство, городской локальный активизм, коллективное действие, неформальность, гражданские инфраструктуры, интерактивный подход.

Благодарности

Исследование выполнено за счет гранта Российского научного фонда (проект РНФ № 18-78-10054) «Механизмы согласования интересов в процессах развития городских территорий».

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