Article Information

FORMAL AND INFORMAL CIVIC INFRASTRUCTURE: CONTEMPORARY STUDIES OF URBAN LOCAL ACTIVISM IN RUSSIA

Anna Zhelninaab(azhelnina@gmail.com),

Elena Tykanovab(elenatykanova@gmail.com)

aHigher School of Economics Campus in St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg, Russia

bThe Sociological Institute of the RAS — Branch of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia

Citation: Zhelnina A., Tykanova E. (2019) Formal'nyye i neformal'nyye grazhdanskiye infrastruktury: sovremennyye issledovaniya gorodskogo lokal'nogo aktivizma v Rossii [Formal and informal civic infrastructure: contemporary studies of urban local activism in Russia]. Zhurnal sotsiologii i sotsialnoy antropologii [The Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology], 22(1): 162–192 (in Russian). https://doi.org/10.31119/jssa.2019.22.1.8

Full Text (PDF)

Abstract. This paper explores the academic discussion about local urban activism in contemporary Russia and aims at revealing the specificity of Russian urban activism. The authors move away from the traditional framework of describing Russian urban processes as “post-Soviet” or “post-socialist,” and position Russian studies of local activism in a broader context of similar research conducted in cities of the Global North and the Global South. Building on the international theoretical developments, the authors suggest the concept of “civic infrastructures” as a promising tool for the analysis of local urban activism, distinguishing between “formal” and “informal” civic infrastructures. Formal civic infrastructures include legally regulated forms of civic participation, such as voting, participation in voluntary associations, municipal self-governance, organizing and cooperation of homeowners, participatory budgeting. Informal civic infrastructures include informal associations, friendship networks, as well as worldviews and ideas that are focused on the creation and maintenance of a common good. The authors conclude that the dramatic contestation of urban spaces in contemporary Russia increases and informal civic infrastructures become more prominent. Scholarly evidence confirms the development of civic worldviews, subjectivities, and politicization of urbanites ready and willing to get involved in the process of decision making regarding their cities’ fate. Formal civic infrastructures, however, do not provide them with adequate tools for such participation. Building on the “strategic interaction perspective,” the authors suggest a theoretical model for local activism studies in Russia which includes tools, sensitive to the interactions of players involved in the urban development processes. They conclude that the integration of formal and informal civic infrastructures is necessary for a healthy civil society and efficient resolution of urban conflicts.

Keywords: urban space, urban local activism, collective action, informality, civic infrastructure, interactive approach.

Acknowledgements

The research is supported by the Russian Science Foundation grant (RSF № 18-78-10054) «Mechanisms of interests coordination in the urban development processes».

References

Aidukaite J., Fröhlich C. (2015) Struggle over public space: grassroots movements in Moscow and Vilnius. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 35(7/8): 565–580.

Almond G A., Verba S. (1965) The civic culture: Political attitudes and democracy in five nations. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Anokhin A.A., Lachininskii S.S., Zhitin D.V., Shendrik A.V., Mezhevich N.M., Krasnov A.I. (2017) Post-Soviet urban environment: the experience of St. Petersburg. Regional research of Russia, 7(3): 249–258.

Antipiev К.А. (2015) Sotsial'nyy potentsial samoorganizatsii mestnykh soobshchestv [Social potential of local communities self-organization]. Vestnik Permskogo Natsional'nogo Issledovatel'skogo Politekhnicheskogo Universiteta. Sotsial'no-Ekonomicheskiye Nauki [Bulletin of the Perm National Research Polytechnic University. Socio-Economic Sciences], 2: 23–27 (in Russian).

Axenov K., Krupickaitė D., Morachevskaya K., Zinovyev A. (2018) Retail sprawl in post-Soviet urban residential communities: Case studies of Saint-Petersburg and Vilnius. Moravian Geographical Reports, 26(3): 210–219.

Badyina A. (2012) The housing question and the production of uneven urban spatialities in Post-Soviet Moscow and Russia. Oxford: Oxford University.

Barber B. (1984) Strong democracy: Participatory democracy for a new age. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Baynova М.S. (2015a) Problemy vzaimodeystviya vlasti i obshchestva v gradostroitel'noy deyatel'nosti na primere goroda Moskvy [Problems of interaction between government and society in urban planning on the example of the city of Moscow]. Vestnik Universiteta [University Bulletin], 6: 104–108 (in Russian).

Baynova М.S. (2015b). Zemel'nyye konflikty v protsesse gradostroitel'noy deyatel'nosti [Land conflicts in the process of urban development]. Konfliktologiya [Conflictology], 1: 161–181 (in Russian).

Becker H.S. (1966) Whose side are we on. Social Problems, 14: 239–247.

Borisova N.V. (2011) Gorodskiye politicheskiye rezhimy i prostranstvo simvolicheskoy politiki [Urban political regimes and space of symbolic policy]. Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Seriya Politologiya [Bulletin of Perm University. Series. Political science], 4(12): 48–55 (in Russian).

Breslavsky A.S. (2012) Post-Soviet Ulan-Ude: Content and Meaning of a New Urban Idea. Inner Asia, 14(2): 299–317.

Brie M. (1997) The political regime of Moscow-creation of a new urban machine? Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin fur Sozialforschung gGmbH (WZB) Reichpietschufer 50, D-10785 Berlin.

Chirikova A.E., Ledyaev V.G. (2014) Lokal'nyye elity v malykh rossiyskikh gorodakh: formal'nyye i neformal'nyye resursy vlasti [Local elites in small Russian cities: formal and informal resources of power]. PRO NUNC. Sovremennyye politicheskiye protsessy [PRO NUNC. Modern political processes], 1(13): 129–162 (in Russian).

Clément K. (2015) Unlikely mobilisations: how ordinary Russian people become involved in collective action. European Journal of Cultural and Political Sociology, 2(3–4): 211–240.

Clément K., Miryasova O., Demidov A. (2010) Ot obyvateley k aktivistam: zarozhdayushchiyesya sotsial'nyye dvizheniya v sovremennoy Rossii [From philistines to activists: incipient social movements in modern Russia]. Moscow: Tri kvadrata (in Russian).

Dalton R.J. (2008) The good citizen: How a younger generation is reshaping American politics. Washington: CQ Press, SAGE.

Druzhinin A.M. (2011) Reprezentatsiya stroitel'nykh konfliktov v virtual'nykh soobshchestvakh [Representation of construction conflicts in virtual communities]. Integratsiya, partnerstvo i innovatsii v stroitel'noy nauke i obrazovanii [Integration, partnership and innovation in construction science and education]. Moscow: National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering: 79–82 (in Russian).

Enigbokan A. (2016) Delai Sam: social activism as contemporary art in the emerging discourse of DIY urbanism in Russia. Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability, 9(2): 101–116.

Furedi F. (1999) Consuming democracy: Activism, elitism and political apathy. The European Science and Environment Forum online, vol. 15.

Gdaniec C. (1997). Reconstruction in Moscow’s historic centre: conservation, planning and finance strategies–the example of the Ostozhenka district. GeoJournal, 42(4): 377–384.

Gladarev B. (2011) Istoriko-kul'turnoye naslediye Peterburga: rozhdeniye obshchestvennosti iz dukha goroda [Historical and cultural heritage of St. Petersburg: The birth of the public from the city spirit]. In: Kharkhordin O. (Ed.) Ot obshchestvennogo k publichnomu [From the communal to the public]. St. Petersburg: European University Press: 71–304 (in Russian).

Gladarev B.S. (2012) Gradozashchitnyye dvizheniya Peterburga nakanune «zimney revolyutsii» 2011–2012 g.: analiz iz perspektivy frantsuzskoy pragmaticheskoy sotsiologii [City-protecting movements of St. Petersburg on the eve of the ‘Winter revolution’ of 2011–2012: Analysis and prospects of French pragmatic sociology]. Monitoring obshchestvennogo mneniya: ekonomicheskiye i sotsial'nyye peremeny [Monitoring of Public Opinion], 4(110): 29–43 (in Russian).

Glukhova A.V., Kolba A.I., Sokolov A.V. (2017) Politiko-institutsional'nyye i kommunikativnyye aspekty vzaimodeystviya sub"yektov gorodskikh konfliktov (po materialam ekspertnogo oprosa) [Political, institutional and communicative aspects of interaction between the subjects of urban conflicts (based on expert survey)]. Chelovek. Soobshchestvo. Upravleniye [Person. Community. Governance], 18(4): 44–65 (in Russian).

Golubchikov O., Badyina A. (2006) Conquering the inner-city: Urban redevelopment and gentrification in Moscow. The Urban Mosaic of Post-Socialist Europe: Space, Institutions and Policy. Heidelberg, New York: Physica-Verlag: 195–212.

Hahn J.W. (2004) St. Petersburg and the Decline of Local Self-Government in Post-Soviet Russia. Post-Soviet Affairs, 20(2): 107–131.

Holston J. (2008) Insurgent citizenship: Disjunctions of democracy and modernity in Brazil. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Ivanou A. (2016) Social problem ownership at Taganka, Moscow: Explaining urban protests against infill development projects. Rationality and Society, 28(2): 172–201.

Karbainov N.I. (2018) Favely, gedzhekondu, «nakhalovki»: skvotterskiye poseleniya v gorodakh razvivayushchikhsya i postsovetskikh stran [Favelas, Gecekondu, Nakhalovki: Squatter Settlements in the Cities of Developing and Post-Soviet Countries]. Mir Rossii. Sotsiologiya. Etnologiya [World of Russia. Sociology. Ethnology], 27(1): 135–158 (in Russian).

Kelly C. (2015) ‘Scientific Reconstruction’ or ‘New Oldbuild’? The Dilemmas of Restoration in Post-Soviet St. Petersburg. Revue des études slaves, 86(LXXXVI–1–2): 17–39.

Kinossian N. (2006) Urban redevelopment programmes in Kazan, Russia. The Urban Mosaic of Post-Socialist Europe. New York: Springer: 319–336.

Kol'ba A.I. (2015) Politiko-upravlencheskiye aspekty regulirovaniya gradostroitel'nykh konfliktov [Political and governmental aspects of the urban conflicts regulation]. Sovremennyy gorod: vlast', upravleniye, ekonomika [Modern city: power, governance, economy], 1: 297–306 (in Russian).

Kolba A.I. (2016) Modeli politicheskoy kommunikatsii v konflikte mezhdu strukturami vlasti i obshchestvom (regional'nyy uroven') [Models of political communication in the conflict between government and society (regional level)]. Sovremennyy gorod: vlast', upravleniye, ekonomika [Modern city: power, governance, economy], 1: 22–31 (in Russian).

Kolba A.I., Ilchenko А.А. (2012) Modeli politicheskoy kommunikatsii v konflikte mezhdu strukturami vlasti i obshchestvom (regional'nyy uroven') [Models of political communication in the conflict among power structures and society (regional level)]. Chelovek. Obshchestvo. Upravleniye [Person. Society. Control], 1: 122–132 (in Russian).

Kol'ba A.I., Sokolov А.V. (2016) Gorodskoy konflikt: problemy definitsii, tipologizatsii i upravleniya [Urban conflict: the problems of definition, typology and governance]. Konfliktologiya [Conflictology], 4: 234–252 (in Russian).

Kolossov V., Vendina O., O’Loughlin J. (2002) Moscow as an emergent world city: international links, business developments, and the entrepreneurial city. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 43(3): 170–196.

Kovin V.S. (2014) Grazhdanskiy vyzov Permi: «grazhdanskaya stolitsa» vs. «politicheskoye boloto» [The civic challenge from Perm: “the civic capital” vs. “the political bog”]. Stilisticheskiye osobennosti permskoy gorodskoy identichnosti [Stylistic features of Perm city identity]. St. Petersburg: Mamatov Publishing: 195–235 (in Russian).

Ledeneva A. (2018) Global Encyclopaedia of Informality, Volume 1: Towards Understanding of Social and Cultural Complexity. London: UCL Press.

Medvedev I.R. (2016) Problemy osparivaniya publichnykh slushaniy (na primere Moskvy) [The problem of public hearing contestation (case of Moscow)]. Arbitrazhnyy i grazhdanskiy protsess [Arbitration and civil procedure], 1: 57–64 (in Russian).

Miryasova O., Clément K. (2008) Ot obyvatelya k aktivistu: transformatsiya freyma (issledovaniye zhilishchnogo dvizheniya v Astrakhani) [From philistines to activists: the frame transformation (study of tenants movements in Astrahan). Sotsial'naya real'nost' [Social reality], 3: 5–23 (in Russian).

Molodikova I., Makhrova A. (2007) Urbanization patterns in Russia in the post-Soviet era. The Post-Socialist City. Dordrecht: Springer: 53–70.

Murphy E. (2015) For a Proper Home: Housing Rights in the Margins of Urban Chile, 1960–2010. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Nosikov A.A., Turygin F.V., Myskin E.B., Pelin A.A. (2017). Protest protiv peredachi Isaakiyevskogo sobora Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi: setevoy analiz i dinamika konflikta na etape yego stanovleniya [Protest against the transfer of St. Isaac’s Cathedral to the Russian Orthodox Church: network analysis and the dynamics of the conflict at the stage of its formation]. Byulleten' Tsentra etnoreligioznykh issledovaniy [Bulletin of the Center for Ethnoreligious Studies], 1: 65–81 (in Russian).

Pagonis T., Thornley A. (2000) Urban development projects in Moscow: market/state relations in the new Russia. European Planning Studies, 8(6): 751–766.

Pavlova М.А. (2017) «Eto nash gorod!»: kul'turnaya sreda Leningrada kak prostranstvo politicheskogo soprotivleniya v period «perestroyki» [“This is our city!”: The cultural environment of Leningrad as a space of political resistance in the time of “perestroika”]. Materialy V Vserossiyskoy (s mezhdunarodnym uchastiyem) nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii studentov, aspirantov i molodykh uchenykh [Materials of the V Russian (with international participation) scientific-practical conference of students, graduate students and young scholars]. Ekaterinburg: 79–85 (in Russian).

Perezolova P.A.(2015) Gorodskiye elektronnyye referendumy: opyt proyekta «Aktivnyy grazhdanin» [Urban electronic referendums: the experience of the project "Active Citizen"]. Vlast' [Power], 2: 108–113 (in Russian).

Petrova R. (2018) Politizatsiya gorodskikh konfliktov v sovremennoy Rossii: uchastniki, povestka, takticheskoye vzaimodeystviye [Politicization of urban conflicts in modern Russia: participants, agenda, tactical interaction]. Vestnik Permskogo Universiteta. Politologiya [Bulletin of Perm University. Political science], 3: 122–136 (in Russian).

Pickvance C.G. (1994) Housing privatization and housing protest in the transition from state socialism: a comparative study of Budapest and Moscow. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 18(3): 433–450.

Pilkington H., Pollock G. (2015) ‘Politics are bollocks’: youth, politics and activism in contemporary Europe. The Sociological Review, 63(S2): 1–35. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-954X.12260

Pustovoit Yu.A. (2014) Gorodskiye politicheskiye rezhimy: koordinatsiya vnutrielitnogo vzaimodeystviya v krupnykh industrial'nykh gorodakh [Urban political regimes: coordination of intra-elite interaction in big industrial cities]. Gosudarstvennoye upravleniye. Elektronnyy vestnik [Public administration. Electronic bulletin], 46: 85–106 (in Russian).

Putnam R.D. (1993) What makes democracy work? National Civic Review, 82(2): 101–107.

Putnam R.D. (2001). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Raskhodchikov A.N. (2017) Setevaya reaktsiya gorozhan na masshtabnyye gradostroitel'nyye proyekty kak proyavleniye spetsificheskoy formy grazhdanskoy sub'yektnosti [Network citizens reaction to the large-scale urban projects as a manifestation of a specific form of civil subjectness]. Vlast' [Power], 4: 81–86 (in Russian).

Rossiyskiy nepoliticheskiy aktivizm: nabroski k portretu geroya [Russian non-political activism: an outline of the hero portrait]. Otchet o rezul'tatakh issledovaniya aktivizma v Rossii [Report on the study results of activism in Russia] (2012). Perm: Center GRANI (in Russian).

Rublev D.I. (2014) Opyt grazhdanskoy samoorganizatsii: dvizheniye protiv uplotnitel'noy zastroyki v Moskve, 2007–2008 gg. [The experience of civiс self-organization: the movement against infill development in Moscow, 2007–2008] Rossiya i sovremennyy mir [Russia and the modern world], 2: 238–248 (in Russian).

Rudolph R., Brade I. (2005) Moscow: Processes of restructuring in the post-Soviet metropolitan periphery. Cities, 22(2): 135–150.

Sekirina E.E. (2011) Territorial'noye obshchestvennoye samoupravleniye kak forma neposredstvennoy demokratii (rossiyskiye realii i mirovoy opyt) [Public self-government as a form of direct democracy (Russian realities and world experience)]. Gumanitarnyye i sotsial'nyye nauki [Social sciences and humanities], 6: 259–273 (in Russian).

Shatalova A.N., Tykanova E.V. (2018) Neformal'nyye praktiki uchastnikov publichnykh slushaniy (sluchay Sankt-Peterburga) [Informal practices of the public hearings participants (the case of St. Petersburg)]. Zhurnal sotsiologii i sotsial'noy antropologii [Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology], 21(4): 63–84 (in Russian).

Shevtsova I.K., Bederson V.D. (2017) «U vlasti tochka zreniya-molchaniye»: Vzaimodeystviye initsiativnykh grupp i organov mestnoy vlasti v politike gorodskogo planirovaniya [“The government has a point of view-silence”: Interaction between initiative groups and local authorities in urban planning policies]. Politicheskaya Nauka [Political Science], 4: 111–136 (in Russian).

Shilov M.P., Yakovenko N.V., Nagovskiy V.K. (2014) Ekologicheskiye kollizii i gradostroitel'nyye konflikty: sistemnyy analiz problem postperestroyechnogo Ivanova [Ecological collisions and town-planning conflicts: system analysis of the problems in post-perestroika Ivanov]. Noosfernyye issledovaniya [Noosphere research], 1(7): 65–90 (in Russian).

Shomina E.S. (1995) Stanovleniye zhilishchnogo dvizheniya v Rossii [Formation of the tenants movement in Russia]. Sotsiologicheskiye issledovaniya [Sociological Researches], 10: 78–87 (in Russian).

Shomina Y., Kolossov V., Shukhat V. (2002). Local activism and the prospects for civil society in Moscow. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 43(3): 244–270.

Terentyev E.A. (2015) Toponimicheskiy aktivizm i «Pravo na gorod»: sotsiologicheskiye zametki [Toponymic Activism and “the Right to the city”: sociological notes]. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Filosofiya. Sotsiologiya. Politologiya [Bulletin of Tomsk State University. Philosophy. Sociology. Political science], 1(29): 194–202 (in Russian).

Tev D.B. (2006) Politekonomicheskiy podkhod v analize mestnoy vlasti. K voprosu o koalitsii, pravyashchey v Sankt-Peterburge [Political economy approach in the analysis of local authorities. St. Petersburg ruling coalition revisited]. Politicheskaya ekspertiza [Political expertise], 2(2): 99–121 (in Russian).

Tykanova E., Khokhlova A. (2013) Local Communities in St. Petersburg: Politicisation of Claims to Contested Urban Spaces. Articulo-Journal of Urban Research, Special issue 4.

Tykanova Е., Khokhlova А. (2019) Grassroots urban protests in St. Petersburg: (non)participation in decision-making on the futures of city territories. International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society (in print).

Tykanova Е.V. Khokhlova А.M. (2014) Trayektorii samoorganizatsii lokal'nykh soobshchestv v situatsiyakh osparivaniya gorodskogo prostranstva [Trajectories of local communities’ self-organization in the situations of urban space contestation]. Sotsiologiya vlasti [Sociology of power], 2: 104–122 (in Russian).

Tykanova Е.V., Khokhlova A.M. (2015) Gorodskoy politicheskiy rezhim v Sankt-Peterburge: rol' real'nykh i voobrazhayemykh «mashin rosta» v bor'be za gorodskoye prostranstvo [Urban political regime in St. Petersburg: The role of real and imagined “growth machines” in the struggle for urban space]. Zhurnal issledovaniy sotsial'noy politiki [Journal of Social Policy Studies], 13(2): 241–256 (in Russian).

Vasiliev S.G. (2016) Gruppa Spaseniya. Kak eto nachinalos' [The rescue mission. The origins]. Gradozashchitnaya deyatel'nost': uchastniki i istochniki: materialy 9-y nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii po informatsionnym resursam peterburgovedeniya [City-protecting activities: participants and sources. Proceedings of 9th research and training conference on the information assets of Petersburg studies] St. Petersburg: Vladimir Mayakovsky Central City Public Library: 77–95 (in Russian).

Vendina O. (2005) Perspectives for polycentric development of the Russian expanse in the context of globalization. In: Glezer O., Polyan P. (Eds.) Russia and its regions in the twentieth century. Territory-settlement-migration. Moscow: OGI: 307–333.

Yerpyleva S. (2017) «Na mitingi ya ne khodil, menya roditeli ne otpuskali»: vzrosleniye, zavisimost' i samostoyatel'nost' v depolitizirovannom kontekste [“I did not go to meetings: my parents would not let me”: Adulting, dependence and independence in a de-politicized context]. [http://syg.ma/@ps-lab/na-mitingi-ia-nie-khodil-mienia-roditieli-nie-otpuskali-mnoghotochiie ] (accessed: 15.03.2019) (in Russian).

Zakirova М. (2008) “Vot zdes' vidno vse!”: samoreprezentatsiya gorodskogo obshchestvennogo dvizheniya [“Here you can see everything!”: Self-representation of the urban social movement]. Zhurnal issledovaniy sotsial'noy politiki [Journal of Social Policy Studies], 2: 217–240 (in Russian).

Zerchaninova Т.Е., Tarbeeva I.S. (2016) Issledovaniye praktiki uchastiya naseleniya munitsipal’nogo obrazovaniya «Gorod Yekaterinburg» v mestnom samoupravlenii [Study of the practice of dwellers participation of the municipal formation “City of Yekaterinburg” in local self-government]. In: Strategii razvitiya sotsial’nykh obshchnostey, institutov i territoriy: Materialy II Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii. Yekaterinburg, 18–20 aprelya 2016 [Strategies for the development of social communities, institutions and territories: Proceedings of the II International Scientific and Practical Conference. Ekaterinburg, April 18–20, 2016]: Ekaterinburg: Ural University Publishing house: 76–80 (in Russian).

Zhelnina А.А. (2013) Svoboda ot politiki: «Obychnaya» molodezh' na fone protestov [Free from politics: "ordinary" youth and the protests]. Sotsiologiya vlasti [Sociology of power], 4: 139–149 (in Russian).

Zhuravlev O., Savel'yeva N., Yerpyleva S (2014) Individualizm i solidarnost' v novykh rossiyskikh grazhdanskikh dvizheniyakh [Individualism and solidarity in new Russian civic movements]. Zhurnal issledovaniy sotsial'noy politiki [Journal of Social Policy Studies], 12(2): 185–200 (in Russian).

Zhuravlev О. (2015) Inertia of post-Soviet depoliticization and politicization of 2011–2012 [The inertia of post-soviet depoliticization and politicization of 2011–2012]. Politika apolitichnykh: grazhdanskiye dvizheniya v Rossii 2011–2013 godov [The politics of the apolitical: Civic movements in Russia, 2011–2013]. Moscow: New Literary Observer: 27–71 (in Russian).

Zubovich K. (2015) Housing and meaning in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia. Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, 16(4): 1003–1011.

Zupan D. (2015) Local debates on ’global’ planning concepts: the ’compact European city’ model in postsocialist Russia-the case of Perm. Europa Regional, 22(1–2): 39–52.

Zuykina A.S. (2017) Faktory uspekha i "provala" v deyatel'nosti lokal'nykh soobshchestv v situatsiyakh osparivaniya gorodskogo prostranstva (na primere goroda Permi) [Factors of success and "failure" in the local communities activities in situations of urban space contestation (case of Perm)]. Istoriya permskogo gorodskogo samoupravleniya v XVIII-XXI vv.: genezis, razvitiye, transformatsiya [The history of Perm urban self-government in the XVIII–XXI centuries: the genesis, development, transformation]. Perm: Novoprint: 85–94 (in Russian).

Zverev А.А. (2017) Politicheskoye izmereniye okhrany pamyatnikov v rossii: keys moskovskogo dvizheniya Arkhnadzor [The political dimension of the monuments protection in Russia: the case of the Moscow movement Arhnadzor]. Vestnik Rossiyskogo universiteta druzhby narodov. Seriya: Politologiya [Bulletin of Peoples' Friendship University of Russia. Series: Political Science], 19(2): 118–129 (in Russian).