Article Information


Anna Temkina (, Elena Zdravomyslova (

European University at St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg, Russia

Citation: Temkina A.A., Zdravomyslova E.A. (2017) Intersektsional’nyy povorot v gendernykh issledovaniyakh [Intersectional Turn in Gender Studies]. Zhurnal sotsiologii i sotsialnoy antropologii [The Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology], 20 (5): 15– 38 (in Russian).

Full Text (PDF)

Abstract: The word ‘intersection’ refers to the image of crossroad where several major highways meet. Intersectional methodology in gender studies investigates the multiplicity and complexity of gender hierarchies produced by the several axis of power. Rejecting gender dichotomy intersectional analysis claims that gender diversity is formed by class, race (ethnicity), age, citizenship, sexuality and other axis of power and social division. We explore intersectional analysis (IA) as one of the current methodologies of gender studies, which have been recognized in academia and widely used in the last decades. We describe the main principles of IA, academic debates on this approach, criticizing stability and universality of gender categories. We present the key dilemmas of IA and advantages of this method for empirical research. Critiques and adherents of this approach debate the concrete dimensions of social divisions and axis of power, the additive and transversal patterns of social divisions’ intersection and the influence of individual and group experiences of multiple oppressions on the social position within matrix of power. IA in gender studies is considered as methodology of analysis of the complex mechanisms of multiple inequalities producing social locations and relevant social positions. We will show the significance of historical and cultural contexts, which produce and reproduce social hierarchies, but also produce the emancipatory agenda in gender studies. We illustrate this approach within the context of Russian empirical research.

Keywords: Intersectionality, gender studies, oppressions, inequalities, class, gender, race, ethnicity, sexuality


Anthias F., Yuval-Davis N. (1983) Contextualizing Feminism: Gender, Ethnic and Class Divisions. Feminist Review, 15: 62–75.

Bogdanova E., Brednikova O. (ed.) (2012) Vdali ot gorodov. Zhizn’ postsovetskoy derevni [Away from the cities. The Life of the Post-Soviet Village]. St. Petersburg: Aleteya (in Russian).

Borozdina E. (2016) Zabota v rodovspomozhenii: vygody i izderzhki professionalov [Professional Care in Maternity Hospitals: Benefits and Challenges]. Zhurnal issledovaniy sotsialnoy politiki [Journal of Social Policy Studies], 14 (4): 479–492 (in Russian).

Brah A., Phoenix A. (2004) Ain’t I a Woman? Revisiting Intersectionality. Journal of International Women’s Studies, 5 (3): 75–86.

Brednikova O. (2003) Zhenskaya trudovaya migratsiya: smena gendernykh kontraktov? [Women’s labor migration: the change of gender contracts?]. In: Popkov L.N., Tartakovskaya I.N. (eds.) Gendernyye otnosheniya v sovremennoy Rossii: issledovaniya 1990–kh godov [Gender relations in modern Russia: research in the 1990s]. Samara: Samara University: 143– 154 (in Russian).

Buitelaar M. (2006) I am the Ultimate Challenge. European Journal of Women Studies, 13 (2): 259–296.

Butler J. (1990) Gender Trouble. Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. London: Routledge.

Collins P. (2000a) Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, consciousness and the politics of Empowerment. Boston: Unwin Hyman.

Collins P. (2000b) It’s All in the Family: Intersections of Gender, Race, and Nation. In: Narayan U., Harding S. (eds.) Decentering the Center: Philosophy for a Multicultural, Postcolonial, and Feminist World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press: 156–176.

Collins P. (2017) Reprezentatsiya afroamerikanskikh zhenshchin. Interv’yu s Patricia Hill Collins [The representation of African American women. Interview with Patricia Hill Collins]. Globalnyy dialog [Global Dialogue], 7 (1): 15–16 (in Russian).

Crenshaw K. (1989) Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex. University of Chicago Legal Forum, 1: 139–167.

Crenshaw K. (1991) Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence Against Women of Color. Stanford Law Review, 43 (6): 1241–1299.

Davis A. (1987) Zhenshchiny, rasa, klass [Women, race, class]. Moscow: Progress (in Russian).

Essig L. (1999) Queer in Russia: A Story of Sex, Self, and the Other. Durham: Duke University Press.

Essig L. (2014) “Serdtsa geyev nado zaryvat’ v zemlyu”: razmyshleniya ob okhote na gomoseksualov v Rossii [“Bur y Their Hearts”: Some Thoughts on the Spectre of Homosexuality Hauntig in Russia]. In: Kondakov A. (ed.) Na pereput’ye: metodologiya, teoriya i praktika LGBT i kvir-issledovaniy [On the crossroads: methodology, theory and practice of LGBT and Queer studies]. St. Petersburg: Center for Independent Social Research: 3–23 (in Russian).

Ferree M. (2008) Inequality, Intersectionality and the Politics of Discourse: Framing Feminist Alliances. In: Lombardo E., Meier P., Verloo M. (eds.) The Discursive Politics of Gender Equality: Stretching, Bending and Policy-Making. London: Routledge: 84–101.

Gapova E. (2017) Klassy natsiy: feministskaya kritika natsiostroitel’stva [Classes of Nations: feminist criticism of national construction]. Moscow: NLO (in Russian).

Hancock A.-M. (2007) Intersectionality as a Normative and Empirical Paradigm. Politics& Gender, 3 (2): 248–253.

Hull A., Bell Scott P., Smith B. (1982) All the Women Are White, All the Blacks Are Men. But Some of Us Are Brave: Black Women’s Studies. Old Westbury, NY.: Feminist Press.

Kimmel M. (2006) Gendernoye obshchestvo [Gender Society]. Moscow: ROSSPEN (in Russian).

Kondakov A. (2014) The Silenced Citizens of Russia: Exclusion of Non-heterosexual Subjects from Rights-Based Citizenship. Social& Legal Studies, 23(2): 151–174.

Lutz H. (2002) Zonder blikken of blozen. Het standpunt van de (nieuw-) realisten. Tijdschrift voor Genderstudies, 3: 7–17.

Lykke N. (2006) Intersectionality Revisited: Problems and Potentials. Kvinnovetenskaplig tidskrift, 2–3: 7–17.

Matsuda M. (1991) Beside My Sister, Facing the Enemy: Legal Theory out of Coalition. Stanford Law Review, 43(6): 1183–1192.

McCall L. (2005) The Complexity of Intersectionality. Signs, 30(3): 1771–1800.

McRuer R. (2006) Crip Theory: Cultural Signs of Queerness and Disability. NY.: New York University Press.

Nizamova A. (2016) Aktivnoye dolgoletiye i vneshniy vid: kak teoreticheskaya kontseptsiya reguliruyet samovospriyatiye v starshem vozraste? [Active Ageing and Outward Appearance: How Do Theoretical Conceptions Affect Self-Perception in Old Age?]. Zhurnal issledovaniy sotsialnoy politiki [Journal of Social Policy Studies], 14 (4): 569–582 (in Russian).

Rocheva A. (2014) “Ponayekhali tut” v roddomakh Rossii: issledovaniye rezhima stratifitsirovannogo vosproizvodstva na primere kirgizskikh migrantov v Moskve [“A Swarm of Migrants in our Maternity Clinics!”: The Study of Stratified Reproduction Regime in the Case of Kyrgyz Migrants in Moscow]. Zhurnal issledovaniy sotsialnoy politiki [Journal of Social Policy Studies], 12 (3): 367–380 (in Russian).

Scott J. (2001) Gender: poleznaya kategoriya istoricheskogo analiza [Gender: a useful category of historical analysis]. In: Zherebkin S. (ed.) Vvedeniye v gendernyye issledovaniya. Khrestomatiya. Chast’ 2 [Introduction to Gender Studies. Reader. Part 2]. St. Petersburg: Aleteyya: 405–436 (in Russian).

Selenyi I., Fodor E., Emigh R. (eds.) (2001) Poverty, Ethnicity and Gender in Eastern Europe During the Market Transition. Westport: Praeger.

Simonova O. (2017) Emotion Management and the Professional Culture of Administrative Social Workers in Russia: Common Standards Versus the Moral Mission of Social Care. Zhurnal issledovaniy sotsialnoy politiki [Journal of Social Policy Studies], 15(1): 129–142.

Staunæs D. (2003) Where Have All the Subjects Gone? Bringing together the Concepts of Intersectionality and Subjectifi cation. Nora, 11(2): 101–110.

Tartakovskaya I. (2015) Vosproizvodstvo gendernogo poryadka cherez kar’yernyye strategii: popytka intersektsional’nogo analiza [The gender order reproduction via career strategies: Intersectional analyses]. Sotsiologicheskiye issledovaniya [Sociological Studies], 2015, 5: 84–93 (in Russian).

Temkina A. (2008) Seksual’naya zhizn’ zhenshchiny: mezhdu svobodoy i podchineniyem [Sexual life of women: between freedom and submission]. St. Petersburg: EUSP Press (in Russian).

Temkina A. (2017) “Ekonomika doveriya” v platnom segmente rodovspomozheniya: gorodskaya obrazovannaya zhenshchina kak potrebitel’ i patsiyentka [“Economy of Trust” in Commercial Obstetric Care: Educated Urban Women as Consumers and Patients]. Ekonomicheskaya sotsiologiya [Economic Sociology], 18(3): 14–53 (in Russian).

Vanke A., Kulaev M. (2016) Reprezentatsii rabochikh v rossiyskoy pechatnoy presse [Representations of Workers in Russian Print Media]. Zhurnal issledovaniy sotsialnoy politiki [Journal of Social Policy Studies], 14 (1): 23–38 (in Russian).

Walby S. Intersectionality: Multiple Inequalities in Social Theory. Sociology, 2012, 46(2): 224–240.

Yaroshenko S. (2009) Bednyye lyudi: mir lyubvi i seksual’nosti [Poor people: a world of love and sexuality]. In: Zdravomyslova E., Rotkirch A., Temkina A. (eds.) Novyy byt v sovremennoy Rossii: gendernyye issledovaniya povsednevnosti [A New Life in Modern Russia: Gender Studies of Everyday Life]. St. Petersburg: EUSP Press: 373–403 (in Russian).

Yuval-Davis N. (2006) Intersectionality and Feminist Politics. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 13(3): 193–210.

Yuval-Davis N. (2011) The Politics of Belonging. Intersectional Contestations. London: Sage.

Zdravomyslova E., Temkina A. (2014) Feministskiye refleksii o polevom issledovanii [Feminist Reflections on Fieldwork]. Laboratorium: zhurnal sotsialnykh issledovaniy [Laboratorium: Journal of Social Studies], 1: 84–112 (in Russian).

Zdravomyslova E., Tkach O. (2016) Kul’turnyye modeli klassovogo neravenstva v sfere naemnogo domashnego truda v Rossii [Cultural Patterns of Class Inequality in the Realm of Paid Domestic Work in Russia], Laboratorium: zhurnal sotsialnykh issledovaniy [Laboratorium: Journal of Social Studies], 3: 68–99 (in Russian).