Article Information

THE ATMOSPHERE OF URBAN SPACES: FROM METAPHOR TO DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE

Ekaterina Shishova (E-mail: eshishova@hse.ru)

National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia

Citation: Shishova E. (2018) Atmosfera gorodskikh prostranstv: ot metafory k yazyku opisaniya [The atmosphere of urban spaces: from metaphor to description language]. Zhurnal sotsiologii i sotsialnoy antropologii [The Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology], 21(4): 85–103 (in Russian). https://doi.org/10.31119/jssa.2018.21.4.4

Abstract. In the last decades the atmosphere of urban spaces has been increasingly studied by representatives of various fields of knowledge. This is connected both with attention to a person, his/her emotions and experiences, and with the need to apply this concept in real life: urban and public spaces planning, building a marketing strategy for tourist destinations, organizing mega-events, etc.

Despite the fact that the phenomenon of the atmosphere is extremely in demand, because it enables a comprehensive view of the urban space from various research positions, it has not yet been clearly defined, conceptualized and operationalized. The lack of a conceptual apparatus and a relevant language for describing this phenomenon leads to the impossibility of effectively measuring urban space and the social relations produced in it, creating difficulties for both social researchers and practitioners.

The author attempts to create a language to describe the phenomenon of the urban atmosphere. The work is based on the analysis of the concept of the atmosphere and its shades, the search and justification of its metaphorical meanings. As a result, to describe the urban atmosphere, the author proposes to use the concepts of laminarity and turbulence, borrowed from the natural sciences. The descriptive categories are used by the representatives of the phenomenological and neo-Marxist approaches, and such concepts as urban rhythms, affects, social and political contexts of a city, emotions, infrastructural relief, authenticity and aestheticization of urban space are considered.

Keywords: urban atmosphere, city, metaphor, social interation, affects, aestetisation.

Acknowledgements

I thank Oksana Zaporozhets (PhD, associate professor, NRU HSE) for helping me to find the idea of this article, for discussing and editing it, and also Oksana Nikitina (graduate of Faculty of Geography of MGU, coordinator for Freshwater Ecosystem Conservation and Sustainable Hydropower, World Wide Fund for Nature — Russia) for discussing on laminarity and turbulence process and for editing geofraphical part of this text.

The study was implemented in the framework of the Basic Research Program at the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE) in 2018 year.

 

References

Abramov R.N. (2008) Definitsionistskiye metafory v teoreticheskoy sotsiologii [Definitionist metaphor in theoretical sociology]. Sotsiologicheskiy zhurnal [Sociological journal], 4: 23–34 (in Russian).

Adey P., Brayer L., Masson D., Murphy P., Simpson P., Tixier N. (2013) ‘Pour votre tranquillité’: Ambiance, atmosphere, and surveillance. Geoforum, 49: 299–309.

Ahmed S. (2013) The cultural politics of emotion. London; New York: Routledge.

Anderson B. (2006) Becoming and being hopeful: towards a theory of affect. Environment and planning d: society and space, 24(5): 733–752.

Antchak V. (2018) City rhythms and events. Annals of Tourism Research, 68: 52–54.

Augoyard J.F. (2016) L’apparaître des ambiances. In Ambiances, tomorrow. Proceedings of 3rd International Congress on Ambiances. Volos, Greece: University of Thessaly: 579–585

Böhme G. (2014) Urban atmospheres: Charting new directions for architecture and urban planning. In: Borch C. (ed.) Architectural Atmospheres: On the Experience and Politics of Architecture. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag: 42–59.

Brednikova O., Zaporozhets O. (2016) Veter, ustalost' i romantika nochi (ob osobennostyakh novykh zhilykh massivov) [Wind, Fatigue, and Romance of the Night (on Peculiarities of New Residential Areas)]. Laboratorium: Obzor sotsial'nykh issledovaniy Rossii [Laboratorium: the Review of sociological researches in Russia], 2: 103–119 (in Russian).

d’Hauteserre A.M. (2015) Affect theory and the attractivity of destinations. Annals of Tourism Research, 55: 77–89.

Davidson J., Milligan C. (2004) Embodying emotion sensing space: introducing emotional geographies. Social and Cultural geography, 5(4): 523–532

Duff C. (2010) On the role of affect and practice in the production of place. Environment and planning D: society and space, 28(5): 881–895.

Edensor T. (2016) Introduction: Thinking about rhythm and space. In: Edensor T (eds). Geographies of rhythm. London: Routledge: 13–30

Fedotova N.G. (2017) Formirovaniye gorodskoy identichnosti: factornyy I institutsionalnyy aspekty [The formation of urban identity: factorial and institutional aspects]. Zhurnal sotsiologii i sotsialnoy antropologii [The journal of sociology and social anthropology], 20(3): 32–49 (in Russian).

Fen Y.G. (2012) Osnovnyye kategorii fenomenologicheskoy filosofii prostranstva v sovremennykh issledovaniyakh [Main categories of phenomenological space theory in contemporary researches]. Doktorskaya dissertatsiya, Dissertatsiya na soiskaniye uchenoy stepeni kandidatov filosofskikh nauk, Natsional'nyy issledovatel'skiy universitet «Vysshaya shkola ekonomiki» [The PhD thesis, philosophy, National Research University — Higher School of Economics]. Moskow (in Russian).

Gaudin O., Le Calvé M. (2018) La traversée des ambiances. Communications, 1: 5–23.

Griffero T. (2014a) Architectural affordances. The atmospheric authority of spaces. In: Architecture and Atmosphere. Helsinki: Tapio Wirkkala-Rut Bryk Foundation: 15–47.

Griffero T. (2014b) Who's afraid of atmospheres (and of their authority)? Lebenswelt. Aesthetics and philosophy of experience, 4: 1–16.

Griffero T. (2016) Atmospheres: aesthetics of emotional spaces. London: Routledge.

Harvey D. (1978) The urban process under capitalism: a framework for analysis. International journal of urban and regional research, 2(1–3): 101–131.

Harvey D. (1992) Social justice, postmodernism and the city. International journal of urban and regional research, 16(4): 588–601.

Harvey D. (2010) Social justice and the city. Atlanta: University of Georgia Press.

Ilyin V.I. (2003) Fenomen polya: ot metafory k nauchnoy kategorii [The phenomenon of field: From the metaphor to the scientific category]. Rubezh (al'manakh sotsial'nykh issledovaniy) [Rubezh (almanac of sociological researches], 18: 29–49 (in Russian).

Israel E., Frenkel A. (2017) Social justice and spatial inequality: Toward a conceptual framework. Progress in Human Geography, 42(5): 647–665.

Kravchenko A.I. (2016) Metafory v sotsiologii: novyye perspektivy ili put' v nikuda? [Sociological metaphors: new perspectives or road to nowhere]. Sotsiologicheskiye issledovaniya [The sociological research], 7: 124–133 (in Russian).

LaBelle B. (2008) Pump up the bass — Rhythm, cars, and auditory scaffolding. The Senses and Society, 3(2): 187–203.

Lefebvre H. (2015) Proizvodstvo prostranstva [The production of space]. Moscow: Strelka Press (in Russian).

Milgram S. (1970) The experience of living in cities. Science, 167(3924): 1461–1468.

Molotch H. (1976) The City as a Growth Machine: Toward a Political Economy of Place. American Journal of Sociology, 82(2): 309–332

Pile S. (2010) Emotions and affect in recent human geography. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 35(1): 5–20.

Schmitz H. (2016) Atmospheric spaces. Ambiances [http://journals.openedition.org/ambiances/711] (accessed: 24.06.2018). DOI: 10.4000/ambiances.711

Spitzer L. (1942) Milieu and ambiance: an essay in historical semantics. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 3(2): 169–218.

Spitzer L. (1952) A Reinterpretation of "The Fall of the House of Usher". Comparative Literature, 4(4): 351–363.

Thibaud J.P. (2002) L'horizon des ambiances urbaines. Communications, 73: 185–201

Thibaud J.P. (2012) Petite archéologie de la notion d'ambiance. Communications, 1: 155–174.

Thibaud J.P. (2015) The backstage of urban ambiances: When atmospheres pervade everyday experience. Emotion, Space and Society, 15: 39–46.

Tolia‐Kelly D.P. (2006) Affect: an ethnocentric encounter? Exploring the ‘universalist’ imperative of emotional/affectual geographies. Area, 38(2): 213–217.

Trubina Y.G. (2011) Gorod v teorii [City in theory]. Moscow: Novoye literaturnoye obozreniye (in Russian).

Wood S. (2009) Desiring docklands: Deleuze and urban planning discourse. Planning Theory, 8(2): 191–216.

Zeile P., Resch B., Exner J.P., Sagl G. (2015) Urban emotions: benefits and risks in using human sensory assessment for the extraction of contextual emotion information in urban planning. In Planning support systems and smart cities. New York: Springer: 209–225.

Zukin S. (1998) Politics and aesthetics of public space: the "American" model. Real City, Ideal City. Meaning and Function in the Modern Urban Space [http://www.cccb.org/rcs_gene/politics_aesthetics.pdf] (accessed: 15.06.2018).

Zukin S. (2009a) Changing landscapes of power: Opulence and the urge for authenticity. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 33(2): 543–553.

Zukin S. (2009b) Naked city: The death and life of authentic urban places. London: Oxford University Press.