Article Information

TRANSFORMATION OF TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE USED BY THE EASTERN KHANTY OF KHANTY-MANSI AUTONOMOUS OKRUG-YUGRA
(since the 1960s to the Present)

Aleksei Rud’ (raa@bk.ru)

Tyumen Scientific Centre SB RAS, Institute of the problems of Northern development, Department of Ethnology, Tyumen, Russia

Citation: Rud’ A. (2021) Transformatsiya transportnoy infrastruktury, ispol'zuyemoy vostochnymi khantami Khmao-Yugry (v period s 1960-kh gg. do nastoyashchego vremeni) [Transformation of transport infrastructure used by the Eastern Khanty of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra (since the 1960s to the present)]. Zhurnal sotsiologii i sotsialnoy antropologii [The Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology], 24(1): 204–226 (in Russian). https://doi.org/10.31119/jssa.2021.24.1.8

Abstract. The article explores stages and mechanisms of change in the transport infrastructure used by the Eastern Khanty in the period from the 1960s. The research is based on field materials collected by the author in the Middle Оb region in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra since 2002. Communication of the indigenous inhabitants of the Middle Ob region with each other, interaction with economic and administrative centers took place through traditional water transport, harness reindeer herding, as well as on foot during most of the 20th century. The industrial development of the Middle Ob region led to rapid changes in the lifestyle of the Eastern Khanty, starting in the 1960s. The emergence of new towns and settlements, railways, an extensive network of oil industry infrastructure led to the transformation of the traditional transport infrastructure of the indigenous people of the region. The institution of economic agreements between indigenous people and industrial companies played an important role in the transition of the Eastern Khanty from traditional to complex transport infrastructure in the 1990s. As a result, indigenous people began to receive material compensation from industrial companies, including transport services, modern equipment and fuel. The communication system of the Eastern Khanty is characterized by its multicomponent character now. Snowmobiles and motor boats are used by the Eastern Khanty as their primary means of transportation; cars and other equipment are widespread as well. At the same time, harness reindeer husbandry has lost its leading transport role. Traditional skis and boats are used as additional means of transportation. The industrial infrastructure of oil companies has spread throughout the territory of the Eastern Khanty in the Middle Ob region over the past 20 years. Thus, one part of the traditional transport infrastructure of the Eastern Khanty fell into decay, while the other part of it was transformed and adapted to the industrial infrastructure.

Keywords: Eastern Khanty, Middle Ob region, transport infrastructure, transformation of traditional culture, adaptation strategies.

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