Article Information

ADAPTATION STRATEGIES OF RURAL MIGRANTS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE MAIN ETHNIC GROUPS OF KHAKASSIA)

Olga Lushnikova (oltolt@mail.ru)

Khakass Research Institute of Language, Literature and History, Abakan, Russia

Citation: Lushnikova O. (2021) Strategii adaptivnogo povedeniya sel'skikh migrantov (na primere osnovnykh etnicheskikh grupp Khakasii) [Adaptation strategies of rural migrants (on the example of the main ethnic groups of Khakassia)]. Zhurnal sotsiologii i sotsialnoy antropologii [The Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology], 24(4): 7–33 (in Russian). https://doi.org/10.31119/jssa.2021.24.4.1

Abstract. The relevance of this topic is due to the intensive migration of the rural population. The success of rural migrants in the urban depends on the adaptation strategy. The article is based on the results of the study of adaptation processes of the main ethnic groups of Khakassia: Russian people and Khakass people. The purpose of this article is to detect the main types of adaptation strategies of these groups. The empirical base is materials of a sociological survey of rural migrants living in urban settlements of Khakassia (403 Russians and 402 Khakass people). Homogeneous groups among Russians and Khakass people were allocated by cluster analysis method. The main characteristics of adaptation strategy: motivation component, purpose, the character of job, interaction with urban actors, urban lifestyle, urban identity. Three main types of adaptation strategies are typical for all rural migrants: passive-pessimistic, passive-realistic, and active-optimistic. The moving for objective reasons is more associated with a passive-pessimistic type of behavior, forced migration — with passive-realistic adaptation strategies, and moving to the urban for a better life — with active-optimistic strategies. In addition, the type of strategy varies depending on the level of education of the migrants, job, material wealth, and future expectations. Among Russians are more rural migrants with an active-optimistic type of strategy, among Khakass people are visitors with a flexible strategy — passive-realistic type.

Keywords: strategies; adaptation; adaptive behavior; rural migrants, Russian people; Khakass people; Khakassia.

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