Article Information

PUBLIC STATEMENTS ABOUT SEX EDUCATION IN RUSSIAN MEDIA

Yulia Kuzmina (ykuzmina@eu.spb.ru)

European University at Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Citation: Kuzmina Y. (2020) Publichnyye vyskazyvaniya o seksual'nom obrazovanii v rossiyskikh media [Public statements about sex education in Russian media]. Zhurnal sotsiologii i sotsialnoy antropologii [The Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology], 23(3): 122–152. https://doi.org/10.31119/jssa.2020.23.3.6 (in Russian)

Abstract. This article aims to study public statements about sex education in Russia. Using data from Russian media for the years 2008–2018, it is examined how various institutions of social control are manifested in the interpretations of sex education and sexuality. Using structural-topic modeling, the author created clusters of topics that are most often found in reports on sex education. The analysis allows indicating the main institutions of social control, in the context of which sex education is mentioned: political institutions related to regulatory impact; legal institutions; a family that is associated with the context of the transformation of intimate life; medicine, which merges with pronatalistic interests and represents an illustration of state neotraditionalism; the church, which acts in the media discourse as a connecting link for medicine, political and legal institutions. Among the clusters of topics discovered, there is no distinct topic related to the romantic regime of sexuality, where sexuality and sex education would be understood in the context of the manifestation of love. The method of analysis did not reveal the “liberal opposition” of neotraditionalism — judging by the most typical messages in each topic, as well as by the most frequent words, the received topics are more likely to fit into neotraditionalist discourse.

Keywords: sex education, media discourse, gender order, regimes of sexuality, neotraditionalism, structural topic modeling.

References

Beck U. (2000) Obshchestvo riska. Na puti k drugomu modernu [Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity]. Moscow: Progress-Traditsiya (in Russian).

Beck U., Beck-Gernsheim E. (2018) The normal chaos of love. John Wiley & Sons.

Blei D.M., Ng A.Y., Jordan M.I. (2003) Latent dirichlet allocation. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 3: 993–1022.

Brooks F., Kendall S. (2013) Making sense of assets: what can an assets based approach offer public health? Critical Public Health, 23(2): 127–130.

Chervyakov V., Kon I. (2000) Sexual revolution in Russia and the tasks of sex education. In: Sandord T. (ed.) AIDS in Europe: New Challenges for Social Sciences. London: Routledge: 119–134.

Connell R.W. (2013) Gender and power: Society, the person and sexual politics. John Wiley & Sons.

Foucault M. (1990) The history of sexuality. Volume one: An introduction.  Vintage.

Foucault М. (2011) Bezopasnost', territoriya, naseleniye [Security, territory, population]. Moscow: Nauka (in Russian).

Giddens A. (1984) The constitution of society: Outline of the theory of structuration. Berkeley; Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Giddens A. (2004) Transformatsii intimnosti [The Transformation of Intimacy]. St. Petersburg: Piter (in Russian)

Giddens A. (2013) The transformation of intimacy: Sexuality, love and eroticism in modern societies. John Wiley & Sons.

Hochschild A.R. (2012) The outsourced self: What happens when we pay others to live our lives for us. New York: Metropolitan Books.

Illouz E. (1997) Consuming the romantic utopia: Love and the cultural contradictions of capitalism. Berkeley; Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Jones T.M. (2011) Saving rhetorical children: Sexuality education discourses from conservative to post-modern. Sex Education, 11(4): 369–387.

Ketting E., Ivanova O. (2018) Sexuality Education in Europe and Central Asia-State of the Art and Recent Developments (an Overview of 25 Countries). Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA and the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network, IPPF EN. Cologne.

Kon I. (1997) Klubnichka na berozke. Seksual'naya kul'tura v Rossii [Strawberry on Birch. Sexual Culture in Russia]. Moscow: OGI (in Russian).

Kosofski S.I. (2002) Epistemologiia chulana [Epistemology of the Closet]. Мoscow: Idea-press (in Russian).

Kováts E., Põim M. (eds.) (2015) Gender as symbolic glue. Budapest: FEPS — Foundation for European Progressive Studies.

Kuhar R., Zobec A. (2017) The anti-gender movement in Europe and the educational process in public schools. CEPS Journal, 7(2): 29–46.

Laclau E., Mouffe C. (2014) Hegemony and socialist strategy: Towards a radical democratic politics. London; New York: Verso.

Makarychev A., Medvedev S. (2015) Biopolitics and power in Putin’s Russia. Problems of Post-communism, 62(1): 45–54.

Makarychev A., Yatsyk A. (2014) A New Russian Conservatism: Domestic Roots and Repercussions for Europe. Notes Internacionals CIDOB, 93: 1–6.

Meylakhs P. (2011) Dangerous knowledge vs. dangerous ignorance: Risk narratives on sex education in the Russian press. Health, Risk & Society, 13(3): 239–254.

Muravyeva M. (2014) Traditional values and modern families: legal understanding of tradition and modernity in contemporary Russia. Zhurnal issledovaniy sotsialnoy politiki [The Journal of Social Policy Studies], 12(4): 625–638 (in Russian).

Østbø J. (2017) Securitizing “spiritual-moral values” in Russia. Post-Soviet Affairs, 33(3): 200–216.

Parker R., Wellings K., Lazarus J.V. (2009) Sexuality education in Europe: An overview of current policies. Sex Education, 9(3): 227–242.

Parsons T. (1942) Age and sex in the social structure of the United States. American sociological review, 7: 604–616.

Pecherskaya N.V. (2013) Perspectivy rossiiskoy semeynoy politiki: prinuzhdenie k traditsii [Perspectives of Russian family policy: coersion to tradition]. Zhurnal sotsiologii i sotsialnoy antropologii [The Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology], 16(4): 94-105 (in Russian)

Roberts M.E., Stewart B.M., Tingley D. (2014) stm: R package for structural topic models. Journal of Statistical Software, 10(2): 1–40.

Rotkirch A. (2000) The man question. Helsinki: University of Helsinki.

Shchurko T. (2018) ‘Gender education’ in the post-Soviet Belarus: Between authoritarian power, neoliberal ideology, and democratic institutions. Policy Futures in Education, 16(4): 434–448.

Sherstneva N., Murayeva M., Novikova N. (2014) Why are Children’s Rights so Dangerous? Interpreting Juvenile Justice in the Light of Conservative Mobilization in Russia. In: Murayeva M., Novikova N. (eds.) Women’s History in Russia. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Snarskaya О.O. (2009) Seksual'noe obrazovanie kak sfera proizvodstva gendernykh razlichii i konstruirovaniya predstavleniya o natsii [Sex education as a sphere of production of gender differences and construction of the idea of the nation]. Zdorovie i doverie: gendernyy podkhod k reproduktivnoi medicine [Health and Trust: A Gender Approach to Reproductive Medicine], 18: 51–90 (in Russian).

Sperling V., Valerie S. (1999) Organizing women in contemporary Russia: Engendering transition.  Cambridge University Press.

Stella F., Nartova N. (2015) Sexual citizenship, nationalism and biopolitics in Putin’s Russia. In: Stella F., Taylor Y., Reynolds T., Rogers A. (eds.) Sexuality, Citizenship and Belonging: Trans-National and Intersectional Perspectives. London: Routledge: 24–42.

Temkina A., Zdravomyslova E. (2014) Gender’s crooked path: Feminism confronts Russian patriarchy. Current Sociology, 62(2): 253–270.

Temkina А. (2009) Novyy Byt, seksual'naya zhizn' i gendernaya revolutsia [New way of life, sexual life and gender revolution]. In: Zdravomyslova E., Rotkirkh A., Tomkina A. (eds.) Novyy byt v sovremennoy Rossii: gendernyye issledovaniya povsednevnosti [New way of life in modern Russia: gender studies of everyday life]. St. Petersburg: Izd-vo EUSPb: 33–67 (in Russian).

Temkina А.А. (2009) Polovoe prosveschenie kak moral'noe vospitanie (pozdnesovetskiye diskursy o seksual'nosti [Sex education as moral education (late-Soviet discourses of sexuality)]. Zdorovie i doverie: gendernyy podkhod k reproduktivnoi medicine [Health and Trust: A Gender Approach to Reproductive Medicine], 18: 90–107 (in Russian).

UNESCO (2018) International technical guidance on sexuality education: an evidence-informed approach. UNESCO Publishing.

Wesslen R. (2018) Computer-assisted text analysis for social science: Topic models and beyond. arXiv:1803.11045.

WHO Europe (2010) Standards for Sexuality in Europe. A Framework for Policy Makers, Educational and Health Authorities and Specialists. Cologne: WHO Europe and Federal Centre for Health Education BZgA.

Zdravomyslova E. (2001) Hypocritical sexuality of the late Soviet period: Sexual knowledge and sexual ignorance. In: Webber S., Liikanen I. (eds.) Education and civic culture in Post-Communist countries. London: Palgrave Macmillan: 151–167.

Zdravomyslova Е., Temkina А. (2002) Krisis masculinnosti v pozdnesovetskom diskurse [Masculinity crisis in the Post-Societ discourse]. In: Ushakin S. (ed.) O muzhe(N)stvennosti. Moscow: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie: 432–451 (in Russian).

Zdravomyslova Е., Temkina А. (2003) Transformatsia gendernogo grazhdanstva v sovremennoi Rossii [Transformation of gender citizenship in modern Russia]. Kuda prishla Rossia? Itogi sotsiyetal'noy transformatsii [Where has Russia come? Outcomes of societal transformation]. Moscow: MSSES: 140–150 (in Russian).

Zdravomyslova Е., Temkina А. (2004) Ot litsemeriia k ragionalizatsii: diskursivnaya transformatsiia v sfere seksual'nykh otnoshenyy [From hypocrisy to rationalization: discursive transfromation in the sphere of sexual relations]. Gendernyie issledovaniya [Gender Studies], 11, 176–186 (in Russian).

Zdravomyslova Е., Temkina А. (2007) Rossiyskyy gendernyy poryadok: sociologicheskyy podkhod [Russian gender order: sociological approach]. St. Petersburg: Izd-vo EUSPb (in Russian).

Zimmerman J. (2016) Too hot to handle: A global history of sex education. Princeton University Press.

Zola I.K. (1972) Medicine as an institution of social control. The sociological review, 20(4): 487–504.