Article Information

CONSTRUCTION OF DEPRESSION IN FOREIGN SOCIOLOGICAL DISCOURSE: FROM THE "PSYCHIATRIC OBJECT" TO THE VOICE OF THE SUBJECT

Maria Glukhova (mglukhova@eu.spb.ru)

European University at Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Citation: Glukhova M. (2022) Konstruirovaniye depressii v zarubezhnom sotsiologicheskom diskurse: ot «psikhiatricheskogo obyekta» k golosu subyekta. [Сonstruction of depression in foreign sociological discourse: from the "psychiatric object" to the voice of the subject]. Zhurnal sotsiologii i sotsialnoy antropologii [The Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology], 25(2): 127–157 (in Russian). https://doi.org/10.31119/jssa.2022.25.2.6

Abstract. Depression has been one of the most common diagnoses in the Western world for the past 50 years. The global nature of this disease contributed to its penetration into the field of study of foreign sociology. However, in Russia, until recently, depression was not considered as a social, and, accordingly, a sociological problem. The study of this phenomenon and its causes, including those lying in the field of the social, in domestic science remains the prerogative of psychiatry and psychology. The article raises the question of how the discourse on depression has been formed in English-speaking sociology over the past 50 years, and how Russian sociology can fit into the international discussion about this phenomenon. Using the methodology of a systematic literature review, 142 empirical articles on depression for the years 1975–2021 were selected. The sources were analyzed by the method of discourse analysis from the standpoint of the sociology of knowledge (SKAD). A conclusion is made about the movement of the English-language sociological discourse from studying a person and his depression as a “psychiatric object” to giving voice to the subject. By studying the interpretive schemes, classifications and structure of the phenomenon of depression in academic discourse, a periodization of its development was proposed. At the same time, in Russia, sociological discourse on depression has not yet formed, since the discussion of this subject is conducted mainly from the position of psychiatry. This work is intended to stimulate a discussion about depression and other mental illnesses in Russian sociology.

Keywords: depression, sociology, history of science, discourse analysis, sociology of science, sociology of knowledge, Russia/

References

Amato P.R. (1991) Parental Absence During Childhood and Depression in Later Life. The Sociological Quarterly, 32(4): 543–556. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1533–8525.1991.tb00153.x.

Amato P.R., Zuo J. (1992) Rural Poverty, Urban Poverty, and Psychological Well-Being. The Sociological Quarterly, 33(2): 229–240. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1992.tb00373.x.

Aneshensel C.S., Frerichs R.R., Clark V.A. (1981) Family Roles and Sex Differences in Depression. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22(4): 379. https://doi.org/10.2307/2136679.

Aseltine R.H. (1996) Pathways Linking Parental Divorce with Adolescent Depression. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 37(2): 133–148. https://doi.org/10.2307/2137269.

Averina M., Nilssen O., Brenn T., Brox J., Arkhipovsky V.L., Kalinin A.G. (2005) Social and lifestyle determinants of depression, anxiety, sleeping disorders and self-evaluated quality of life in Russia: A population-based study in Arkhangelsk. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40(7): 511–518. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-005-0918-x.

Bao W.-N., Whitbeck L.B., Hoyt D.R. (2000) Abuse, Support, and Depression among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 41(4): 408–420. https://doi.org/10.2307/2676294.

Bengs C., Johansson E., Danielsson U., Lehti A., Hammarström A. (2008) Gendered Portraits of Depression in Swedish Newspapers. Qualitative Health Research, 18(7): 962–973. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732308319825.

Benson D.E., Ritter C. (1990) Belief in a Just World, Job Loss, and Depression. Sociological Focus, 23(1): 49–63. https://doi.org/10.1080/00380237.1992.10570553.

Bjarnason T. (1994) The Influence of Social Support, Suggestion and Depression on Suicidal Behavior Among Icelandic Youth. Acta Sociologica, 37(2): 195–206. https://doi.org/10.1177/000169939403700204.

Bobak M., Pikhart H., Pajak A., Kubinova R., Malyutina S., Sebakova H., Topor-Madry R., Nikitin Y., Marmot M. (2006) Depressive symptoms in urban population samples in Russia, Poland and the Czech Republic. British Journal of Psychiatry, 188(4): 359–365. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.188.4.359.

Bogard C.J., McConnell J.J., Gerstel N., Schwartz M. (1999) Homeless Mothers and Depression: Misdirected Policy. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 40(1): 46–62. https://doi.org/10.2307/2676378.

Brailovskaia J., Cosci F., Mansueto G., Miragall M., Herrero R., Baños R.M., Krasavtseva Y., Kochetkov Y., Margraf J. (2021) The association between depression symptoms, psychological burden caused by Covid–19 and physical activity: An investigation in Germany, Italy, Russia, and Spain. Psychiatry Research, 295: 113596. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113596.

Brailovskaia J., Schönfeld P., Zhang X.C., Bieda A., Kochetkov Y., Margraf J. (2018) A Cross-Cultural Study in Germany, Russia, and China: Are Resilient and Social Supported Students Protected Against Depression, Anxiety, and Stress? Psychological Reports, 121(2): 265–281. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033294117727745.

Brijnath B., Antoniades J. (2017) Playing with Antidepressants: Perspectives from Indian Australians and Anglo-Australians Living with Depression. Qualitative Health Research, 27(13): 1970–1981. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732316651404.

Brown G.W., Bhrolchain M.N., Harris T. (1975) Social Class and Psychiatric Disturbance among Women in an Urban Population. Sociology, 9(2): 225–254. https://doi.org/10.1177/003803857500900203.

Burr J., Chapman T. (2004) Contextualising experiences of depression in women from South Asian communities: A discursive approach. Sociology of Health and Illness, 26(4): 433–452. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0141-9889.2004.00398.x.

Catalano R., Aldrete E., Vega W., Kolody B., Aguilar-Gaxiola S. (2000) Job Loss and Major Depression among Mexican Americans. Social Science Quarterly, 81(1): 477–487.

Cavanagh D., Jurcik T., Charkhabi M. (2021) How does trust affect help-seeking for Depression in Russia and Australia? International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 002076402110392. https://doi.org/10.1177/00207640211039253.

Chowdhury N. (2020) Practicing the Ideal Depressed Self: Young Professional Women’s Accounts of Managing Depression. Qualitative Health Research, 30(9): 1349–1361. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732320917929.

Creighton G., Oliffe J., Ogrodniczuk J., Frank B. (2017) “You’ve Gotta Be That Tough Crust Exterior Man”: Depression and Suicide in Rural-Based Men. Qualitative Health Research, 27(12): 1882–1891. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732317718148.

Crosby L., Bonnington O. (2020) Experiences and implications of smartphone apps for depression and anxiety. Sociology of Health & Illness, 42(4): 925–942. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.13076.

Cvetkovich A. (2012) Depression: A Public Feeling. Duke University Press.

Dudina V.I., Ruppel A.F. (2020) «Menya vyvodit iz sebya lyubaya meloch'»: Samomedikalizatsiya stressa i patterny upotrebleniya farmatsevticheskikh preparatov v tsifrovom obshchestve [“Every little thing makes me mad”: Self-medication of stress and patterns of drug use in a digital society] Monitoring obshchestvennogo mneniya: ekonomicheskiye i sotsial'nyye peremeny [Monitoring Public Opinion: Economic and Social Changes], 2(156): 312–330 (in Russian).

Ehrenberg A. (2010) The weariness of the self: Diagnosing the history of depression in the contemporary age. McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Emslie C., Ridge D.T., Ziebland S., Hunt K. (2006) Men’s accounts of depression: Reconstructing or resisting hegemonic masculinity? Social Science & Medicine, 62(9): 2246–2257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.10.017.

Fullagar S., O’Brien W. (2012) Immobility, Battles, and the Journey of Feeling Alive: Women’s Metaphors of Self-Transformation Through Depression and Recovery. Qualitative Health Research, 22(8): 1063–1072. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732312443738.

Gafarov V.V. et.al. (2017) Depressiya, trevoga, narusheniya sna u naseleniya 45–69 let v Rossii (Sibir'): Epidemiologicheskoye issledovaniye. [Depression, Anxiety, Sleep Disorders in the Population 45–69 Years Old in Russia (Siberia): Epidemiological Study]. Nevrologiya, neyropsikhiatriya, psikhosomatika [Neurology, neuropsychiatry, psychosomatics], 9(4): 31–37. https://doi.org/10.14412/2074-2711-2017-4-31-37 (in Russian).

Horwitz A.V., White H.R. (1991). Becoming Married, Depression, and Alcohol Problems Among Young Adults. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 32(3): 221. https://doi.org/10.2307/2136805.

Illouz E. (2008) Saving the Modern Soul: Therapy, Emotions, and the Culture of Self-Help. University of California Press.

Jaehn P., Bobrova N., Saburova L., Kudryavtsev A.V., Malyutina S., Cook S. (2020) The relation of gender role attitudes with depression and generalised anxiety disorder in two Russian cities. Journal of Affective Disorders, 264: 348–357. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.01.027.

Johnson J.L., Oliffe J.L., Kelly M.T., Galdas P., Ogrodniczuk J.S. (2012) Men’s discourses of help-seeking in the context of depression: Men’s help-seeking discourses in depression. Sociology of Health & Illness, 34(3): 345–361. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9566.2011.01372.x.

Kaneva M., Gerry C.J. (2021) Labour market status and depression in Russia: A longitudinal study, 2011–2017. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 140349482110267. https://doi.org/10.1177/14034948211026784.

Karp D.A. (1994) Living with Depression: Illness and Identity Turning Points. Qualitative Health Research, 4(1): 6–30. https://doi.org/10.1177/104973239400400102.

Keith P.M., Schafer R.B. (1985) Role Behavior, Relative Deprivation, and Depression among Women in One- and Two-Job Families. Family Relations, 34(2): 227. https://doi.org/10.2307/583896.

Keller R. (2011) The Sociology of Knowledge Approach to Discourse (SKAD). Human Studies, 34(1): 43–65. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10746-011-9175-z.

Kessler R.C., Essex M. (1982) Marital Status and Depression: The Importance of Coping Resources. Social Forces, 61(2): 484–507. https://doi.org/10.2307/2578238.

Knyazev G.G., Kuznetsova V.B., Savostyanov A.N., Dorosheva E.A. (2017) Does collectivism act as a protective factor for depression in Russia? Personality and Individual Differences, 108: 26–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.11.066.

Kotliar D.M. (2016) Depression Narratives in Blogs: A Collaborative Quest for Coherence. Qualitative Health Research, 26(9): 1203–1215. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732315612715.

Lagory M., Ritchey F., Sells T. (1997) Gender Differences in Social Support: Mental Health Consequences among the Homeless. Sociological Focus, 30(3): 209–225. https://doi.org/10.1080/00380237.1997.10571075.

Lerner M.J. (1965) Evaluation of performance as a function of performer’s reward and attractiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1(4): 355–360. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0021806.

Melgar N., Rossi M. (2012) A Cross-Country Analysis of the Risk Factors for Depression at the Micro and Macro Levels. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 71(2): 354–376. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1536–7150.2012.00831.x.

Mezzich J.E., Kirmayer L.J., Kleinman A., Fabrega H.J., Parron D.L., Good B.J., Lin K.-M., Manson S.M. (1999) The Place of Culture in DSM-IV. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 187(8): 457–464.

Mirowsky J. (1985) Depression and Marital Power: An Equity Model. American Journal of Sociology, 91(3): 557–592. https://doi.org/10.1086/228314.

Mirowsky J. (1996) Age and the Gender Gap in Depression. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 37(4): 362–380. https://doi.org/10.2307/2137263.

Mirowsky J., Ross C.E. (1990) Control or Defense? Depression and the Sense of Control over Good and Bad Outcomes. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 31(1): 71–86. https://doi.org/10.2307/2137046.

Mirowsky J., Ross C.E. (1992) Age and depression. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 33(3): 187–205; discussion 206–212.

Nersessova K.S., Jurcik T., Hulsey T.L. (2019) Differences in beliefs and attitudes toward Depression and Schizophrenia in Russia and the United States. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 65(5): 388–398. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764019850220.

Newmann J.P. (1984) Sex Differences in Symptoms of Depression: Clinical Disorder or Normal Distress? Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 25(2): 136–159. https://doi.org/10.2307/2136665.

OECD (2017) Prevalence of chronic depression, 2014. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/social-issues-migration-health/health-at-a....

Oliffe J.L., Kelly M.T., Bottorff J.L., Johnson J.L., Wong S.T. (2011) «He’s more typically female because he’s not afraid to cry»: Connecting heterosexual gender relations and men’s depression. Social Science & Medicine, 73(5): 775–782. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.06.034.

Pan Ké Shon J.-L., Duthé G. (2013) Trente ans de solitude... Et de dépression. Revue française de sociologie, 54(2): 225–261. https://doi.org/10.3917/rfs.542.0225.

Pearlin L.I., Menaghan E.G., Lieberman M.A., Mullan J.T. (1981) The Stress Process. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22(4): 337–356. https://doi.org/10.2307/2136676.

Pfefferbaum B., North C.S. (2020) Mental Health and the Covid–19 Pandemic. New England Journal of Medicine, 383(6): 510–512. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp2008017

Radloff L.S. (1977) The CES-D Scale: A Self-Report Depression Scale for Research in the General Population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1(3): 385–401. https://doi.org/10.1177/014662167700100306.

Reddy M.S. (2012) Depression — The Global Crisis. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 34(3): 201–203. https://doi.org/10.4103/0253-7176.106011.

Roberts R.E., O’Keefe S.J. (1981) Sex Differences in Depression Reexamined. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22(4): 394–400. https://doi.org/10.2307/2136680.

Ross C.E., Huber J. (1985) Hardship and Depression. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 26(4): 312–327. https://doi.org/10.2307/2136655.

Ross C.E., Mirowsky J., Huber J. (1983) Dividing Work, Sharing Work, and In-Between: Marriage Patterns and Depression. American Sociological Review, 48(6): 809–823. https://doi.org/10.2307/2095327.

Rowe R., Tilbury F., Rapley M., O’Ferrall I. (2003) «About a year before the breakdown I was having symptoms»: Sadness, pathology and the Australian newspaper media. Sociology of Health and Illness, 25(6): 680–696. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.00365.

Scheer S.D., Unger D.G. (1998) Russian Adolescents in the Era of Emergent Democracy: The Role of Family Environment in Substance Use and Depression. Family Relations, 47(3): 297–303. https://doi.org/10.2307/584980.

Seligman M.E.P. (1992) Helplessness: On depression, development, and death. W.H. Freeman.

Shalnova S.A. et al. (2014) Rasprostranennost' trevogi i depressii v razlichnykh regionakh Rossiyskoy Federatsii i yeye assotsiatsii s sotsial'nodemograficheskimi faktorami (po dannym issledovaniya ESSE-RF) [The prevalence of anxiety and depression in various regions of the Russian Federation and its association with socio-demographic factors (according to the ESSE-RF study)]. Terapevticheskiy arkhiv [Therapeutic archive], 86(12): 53–60. https://doi.org/10.17116/terarkh2014861253-60 (in Russian).

Shchittsova T.V. et al. (2020) Bez budushchego: Depressiya i avtoritarnoye obshchestvo [No Future: Depression and the Authoritarian Society]. Yevropeyskiy gumanitarnyy universitet; Logvino literatūros namai (in Russian).

Shmatova Y. (2019) Dinamika statisticheskikh i sotsiologicheskikh pokazateley sostoyaniya psikhicheskogo zdorov'ya naseleniya Rossii [Dynamics of statistical and sociological indicators of the state of mental health of the population of Russia]. Problemy razvitiya territorii [Territory development problems], 3(101). https://doi.org/10.15838/ptd.2019.3.101.5 (in Russian).

Shorter E. (2009) Before Prozac: The troubled history of mood disorders in psychiatry. Oxford University Press.

Stafford A.M., Aalsma M.C., Bigatti S., Oruche U., Draucker C.B. (2019) Getting a Grip on My Depression: How Latina Adolescents Experience, Self-Manage, and Seek Treatment for Depressive Symptoms. Qualitative Health Research, 29(12): 1725–1738. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732319831043.

Switzer J.F., Wittink M.N., Karsch B.B., Barg F.K. (2006) “Pull Yourself Up by Your Bootstraps”: A Response to Depression in Older Adults. Qualitative Health Research, 16(9): 1207–1216. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732306290148.

Turvey C.L., Jogerst G., Kim M.Y., Frolova E. (2012) Cultural differences in depression-related stigma in late-life: A comparison between the USA, Russia, and South Korea. International Psychogeriatrics, 24(10): 1642–1647. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610212000816.

Van de Velde S., Huijts T., Bracke P., Bambra C. (2013) Macro-level gender equality and depression in men and women in Europe: Macro-level gender equality and depression in men and women. Sociology of Health & Illness, 35(5): 682–698. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9566.2012.01521.x.

Warner J. (2009) The Sociology of Mental Health: A Brief Review of Major Approaches: The Sociology of Mental Health. Sociology Compass, 3(4): 630–643. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751–9020.2009.00224.x.

Wittink M.N., Dahlberg B., Biruk C., Barg F.K. (2008) How Older Adults Combine Medical and Experiential Notions of Depression. Qualitative Health Research, 18(9): 1174–1183. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732308321737.

Xiao Y., Watson M. (2019) Guidance on Conducting a Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 39(1): 93–112. https://doi.org/10.1177/0739456X17723971.