Article Information


Konstantin Glazkovab (, Alina Novikovab, Anastasia BylinkinabVasiliy Elenkinb

a Sociological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences –– Branch of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia

b National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia

Citation: Glazkov K., Novikova A., Bylinkina A., Elenkin V. (2019) Turnikety i platezhnaya distsiplina v nazemnom gorodskom transporte Moskvy [Turnstiles and the Payment Discipline in Ground Transportation in Moscow]. Zhurnal sotsiologii i sotsialnoy antropologii [The Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology], 22(6): 172–195. (in Russian).

Abstract. For the past 15 years, a turnstile system has been operating in the Moscow ground transportation. In September 2018, authorities completely removed the turnstiles from the salons, arguing that the passengers began to more consciously approach to fare payment, which, in fact, they were taught by the turnstiles. The aim of the study is to show what user experience the turnstile system has developed during its existence. Fare payment is usually explained by the work of two principles: trust and control. The principle of trust lies in the formation of stable relations between passengers and the carrier, where each side emphasizes interest in each other. The principle of control implies enhancing the monitoring of fare and the emergence of mechanisms of enforcement by the carrier. We will focus on the description of the work of another principle, which is poorly taken into account in the discussion of the effectiveness of the turnstile system –– discipline. In December 2017, we observed how passengers use the turnstile when paying for the ride through the validator at the front door. This was the last month of the overall turnstiles’ operation. Starting from January 1, 2018, they were removed on more than 70 routes. We identify that the passage of the turnstile puts the passenger in an uncomfortable situation: under pressure from the queue, the passengers must lean the ticket against the validator as fast as possible and squeeze their bags and children through the turnstile. In this situation, passengers mainly focus their attention not on those signals that the validator reports, but on the need for mechanical scrolling of the turnstile. Now, when the turnstiles have already been removed from all ground transportation routes, we observe the absence of a formed habit of conscious interaction with validators. If passengers are leaning tickets to the validator, they often pay little attention to whether the validator is able to recognize the ticket and write off the ride. As a result, we come to the conclusion that there is no connection between the 15-year functioning of the turnstile system and the conscious fare payment. Thus, the strategic interaction between authorities and passengers demonstrates that, in addition to the formation of trusting relationships and control mechanisms, it is important to take into account the disciplinary component of user experience.

Keywords: passenger experience, turnstile system, urban transport, fare payment, technology, Moscow


The research is supported by the Russian Science Foundation grant (RSF no. 17-78-20164) “Sociotechnical barriers of the implementation and use of information technologies in Russia: sociological analysis”.


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