Article Information

THE MODERN EUROPEAN RADICALISM: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

Valery Engel (engel@inpsycho.ru)

Moscow Institute of Psychoanalysis, Moscow, Russia 

Citation: Engel V. (2019) Sovremennyy yevropeyskiy radikalizm: komparativnyy analiz [The modern European radicalism: a comparative analysis] Zhurnal sotsiologii i sotsialnoy antropologii [The Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology], 22(1): 138–161 (in Russian). https://doi.org/10.31119/jssa.2019.22.1.7 

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Abstract. The article describes the socio-political model of generation of xenophobia and radicalism (the “Ring of xenophobia"), which has been formed today in the countries of Western and Eastern Europe. The novelty of the paper lies in the analysis given on the example of a wide sample of European countries, both within and outside the EU. Using the methods of comparative analysis, the author traces the general trends in the formation of xenophobic attitudes and, most importantly, the role of the State and political players in this process. The author concludes that the formation of xenophobic and radical sentiments in Europe is a process that fully meets not only the interests of ultra-radical parties and groups, but also the interests of the ruling elites, because it allows them to remain in power indefinitely as long as the xenophobic-minded voter exists. For this, the elite is ready for open and hidden alliances with radical rights parties. However, this phenomenon has another side — the gradual slipping of society and political elites to the right and the gradual corrosion of democratic institutions.The author draws special attention to the Russian case, exploring both general trends related to the topic of xenophobia and radicalism in Europe and differences in the Russian situation. Firstly, xenophobia and radicalism are reduced in Russian society, secondly, there is the protection against assimilation to Russian minorities. Both factors greatly facilitate the integration process. However, this balance is fragile; it exists as long as the structure and volume of migration flows remain unchanged and the acceptable level of unity of the Russian political nation is maintained, which today is largely due to the external factors.

Keywords: xenophobia, radicalism, minorities, assimilation, hate crime, integration.

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