Article

FAMILY FRIENDLY WORKPLACE: POLITICAL INITIATIVES, EMPLOYER’S POSITION AND TYPES OF SUPPORT FOR WORKERS WITH FAMILY RESPONSIBILITIES

Zhanna Chernova (zhchernova@hse.ru)
Department of Sociology, National Research University Higher School of Economics, St. Petersburg, Russia

Citation: Chernova Zh.V. (2017) Rabocheye mesto, druzhestvennoye sem'ye: politicheskiye initsiativy, pozitsiya rabotodatelya i tipy podderzhki rabotnikov s semeynymi obyazannostyami [Family Friendly Workplace: Political Initiatives, Employer’s Position and Types of Support for Workers with Family Responsibilities]. Zhurnal sotsiologii i sotsialnoy antropologii [The Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology], 20(1): 93–113 (in Russian).

Abstract: The article deals with the study of how the workplace is and should be organized in accordance with the needs of working parents. The problem of balancing family and professional duties of employees is considered at three levels of study: the family policy of the state, which sets the general discursive and institutional framework for discussion and solution of this problem; the corporate policy of an enterprise with its own models of supporting employees with family responsibilities; the everyday experience of working parents embedded in the context of the state and employer policies. The article demonstrates the differences in the position of the employer about the need and ways to create a family friendly workplace, as well as the formal and informal types of support that parents solicit in order to optimally combine the performance of professional and family roles. In addition, the analysis takes into account the context of European family policy, which makes it possible to more clearly define the specifics of the Russian situation. Drawing on qualitative empirical research on different Russian companies (interviews with head of companies, HR specialists and working mothers) the author distinguishes two types of family friendly workplace which include formal and informal support measures toward working parents.

Keywords: family policy, corporate family policy, family friendly workplace, working parents.

Acknowledgements: The empirical material of the article were obtained during the research project «Family Friendly Workplace: Corporate Family Policy» (No. 12-01-0018) carried out with the support of the «Science Foundation of the Higher School of Economics» program.

References

Abramov R. (2005) Korporativnaya sotsial'naya otvetstvennost' kak primer organizatsionnogo izomorfizma v usloviyakh globalizatsii [Corporate social responsibility as an example of organizational isomorphism in the conditions of globalization]. Zhurnal issledovaniy sotsialnoy politiki [The Journal of Social Policy Studies], 3(3): 327–347 (in Russian).

Chernova Zh. (2012) Balans sem'i i raboty: politika i individual'nyye strategii materei [Balance of the family and work: the policy and individual strategies of mothers.]. Zhurnal issledovanii sotsialnoi politiki [The Journal of Social Policy Studies], 10(3): 295–308 (in Russian).

Chernova Zh. (2013) Sem'ya kak politicheskiy vopros: gosudarstvennyy proyekt i praktiki privatnosti [Family as a political issue: state project and privacy practices]. SPb.: Yevropeyskiy universitet v Sankt-Peterburge (in Russian).

Chirikova A. (2007) Vzaimodeystviye vlasti i biznesa v realizatsii sotsial'noy politiki: regional'naya proyektsiya [The interaction of government and business in the implementation of social policy: regional projection]. M.: Nezavisimyy institut sotsial'noy politiki (in Russian).

Chubarova T. (1996) Raspredeleniye sotsial'noy otvetstvennosti v obshchestve: sotsial'naya politika gosudarstva i funktsii predpriyatiya [Distribution of social responsibility in society: the social policy of the state and the functions of the enterprise]. In: Kuda idet Rossiya? [Where is Russia going?] M.: 424–426 (in Russian).

Chubarova T. (2011) Sotsial'naya otvetstvennost' v rynochnoy ekonomike: rabotnik, biznes, gosudarstvo [Social responsibility in a market economy: worker, business, state]. M.: «Nestor», (in Russian).

Cook L. (2007) Postcommunist Welfare States: Reform Politics in Russia and Eastern Europe. Cornell: Cornell University Press.

Esping-Andersen G. (1999) Social Foundations of Post-industrial Economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Esping-Andersen G., Gallie D., Hemerijck A., Myles J. (2002) Why We Need a New Welfare State. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Estes S. (2004) How are family-responsive workplace arrangements family friendly? Employer accommodations, parenting, and children's socioemotional well-being. The Sociological Quarterly, 45(4): 637–661.

Gambles R., Lewis S., Rapoport R. (2006) The Myth of Work — Life Balance: The Challenge of our Time for Men, Women and Societies. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Karabchuk T., Nagernyak M. (2013) Determinanty zanyatosti dlya materey v Rossii [Determinants of employment for mothers in Russia]. Zhurnal issledovaniy sotsial'noy politiki [Journal of Social Policy Studies], 11(1): 25–48 (in Russian).

Karabchuk T., Mironova A.A., Remezkova V. (2015) Rabota ili vtoroy rebenok: o chem govoryat dannyye RMEZ-VSHE? [Work or the second child: what do the RLMS-HSE data say?] Voprosy ekonomiki [Issues of Economics], 6: 81–105 (in Russian).

Kontseptsiya gosudarstvennoy semeynoy politiki v Rossiyskoy Federatsii na period do 2025 goda [The concept of state family policy in the Russian Federation for the period until 2025, approved on August 25, 2014] (2014), utverzhdennaya 25.08.2014 Ofitsial'nyy sayt Pravitel'stva Rossii [The official website of the Government of Russia] [http://government.ru/docs/14494/ ]. Accessed 20.06.2016 (in Russian).

Kontseptsiya semeinoi politiki v Sankt-Peterburge na 2012–2022 gody [The concept of family policy in St. Petersburg for 2012–2022]. Ofitsial'nyi sait Administratsii Sankt-Peterburga [Official site of the Administration of St. Petersburg], [http://gov.spb.ru/helper/social/semejnayapolitika-v-sankt-peterburge/kon... ]. Accessed 20.06. 2016 (in Russian).

Kozina I. (2005) Osobennosti «sotsial'no otvetstvennogo biznesa» rossiyskikh predpriyatiy [Features of «socially responsible business» of Russian enterprises]. Zhurnal issledovaniy sotsial'noy politiki [Journal of Social Policy Studies], 3(3): 367–378 (in Russian).

Kozina I. (2010) Rabotayushchiye materi: usloviya zanyatosti i sotsial'naya podderzhka [Working mothers: conditions of employment and social support]. Mikhaleva G. V., otv. red. Zhenskoye dvizheniye v Rossii: vchera, segodnya, zavtra. Materialy konferentsii [Women's movement in Russia: yesterday, today, tomorrow. Conference proceedings.]. M.: RODP «Yabloko»; «KMK»: 19–28 (in Russian).

Kozina I., Cheglakova L. (2014) Corporate Youth Policy: The Approach of Russian Industrial Enterprises. Journal of Social Policy Studies, 12(1): 95–10.

Kozlov V. (2010) Korporativnaya sotsial'naya politika v Rossii [Corporate social policy in Russia]. Federalizm [Federalism], 3(59): 203–213 (in Russian).

Kravchenko Zh., Moteyunaite A. (2008) Zhenshchiny i muzhchiny na rabote i doma: gendernoye razdeleniye truda v Rossii i Shvetsii [Women and men at work and at home: the gender division of labor in Russia and Sweden]. Zhurnal issledovanii sotsialnoy politiki [The Journal of Social Policy Studies], 6(2): 177–200 (in Russian).

Lefevre V.A. (2008) Sotsial'naya rol' predpriyatiy v Rossii: obyasnitel'nyye vozmozhnosti termina «paternalizm» [The social role of enterprises in Russia: the explanatory possibilities of the term «paternalism»]. Mir Rossii [The World of Russia], 3: 149–169 (in Russian).

Lewis J. (2009) Work-Family Balance, Gender and Policy. Cheltenham; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.

Potapchik E.G., Selezneva E.V., Shishkin S.V. (2011) Razvitiye dobrovol'nogo meditsinskogo strakhovaniya: pozitsiya rabotodateley [Development of voluntary health insurance: the position of employers]. In: Obyazatel'noye meditsinskoye strakhovaniye v Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Compulsory health insurance in the Russian Federation], 6: 40–45 (in Russian).

Radayev V., Barsukova S. (2000) Legenda o gendere. Printsipy raspredeleniya truda mezhdu cuprugami v sovremennoi gorodskoi sem'ye [The legend about the gender. Principles of the distribution of labor between the spouses in a modern urban family]. Mir Rossii, 4: 65–102 (in Russian).

Romanov P.V. (2005) Promyshlennyy paternalizm v sisteme sotsial'noy politiki predpriyatiy [Industrial paternalism in the system of social policy of enterprises]. Zhurnal issledovaniy sotsialnoy politiki [The Journal of Social Policy Studies], 3(3): 15–25 (in Russian).

Romanova O., Tkachenko I. (2001) Sotsial'naya otvetstvennost' korporatsiy: opyt territorial'nogo issledovaniya [Social responsibility of corporations: the experience of territorial research]. In: Ekonomicheskaya nauka sovremennoy Rossii [Economic science of modern Russia], 2: 33–46 (in Russian).

Savinskaya O. (2013) Balans raboty i sem'i: strategii sovmeshcheniya professional'nykh i semeynykh obyazannostey rabotayushchimi materyami v Moskve [Balance of work and family: strategies for combining professional and family responsibilities by working mothers in Moscow]. Zhurnal sotsiologii i sotsialnoy antropologii [The Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology], 16(2): 142–167 (in Russian).

Secret M. (2000) Identifying the family, job, and workplace characteristics of employees who use work-family benefits. Family Relations, 49(2): 217–225.

Shkiperova I.S. (2006) Sotsial'naya politika rossiiskikh kompanii v sfere podderzhki sem'i i roditel'stva [The social policy of Russian companies in the sphere of family and parenthood support]. In: Aktual'nyye problemy semey v Rossii [Actual problems of families in Russia]. Pod red. T.A. Gurko. M.: Institut sotsiologii RAN: 163–172 (in Russian).

Swody C., Powell G. (2007) Determinants of employee participation in organizations' family- friendly programs: a multi-level approach. Journal of Business and Psychology, 22(2): 111–122.

Ukaz Prezidenta RF № 606 «O merakh o realizatsii demograficheskoy politiki Rossiyskoy Federatsii» ot 07.05.2012 [Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 606 «On measures to implement the demographic policy of the Russian Federation»] (2012) Rossiyskaya gazeta [Russian newspaper]. 09.05.2012. [http://www.rg.ru/2012/05/09/demo-dok.html ]. Accessed 20.06.2015 (in Russian).

Wax A. L. (2004) Family-friendly workplace reform: prospects for change. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 596: 36–61.

Zasedaniye prezidiuma Gossoveta, posvyashchennoye politike v oblasti sem'i, materinstva i detstva [Meeting of the Presidium of the State Council, devoted to the policy in the field of family, motherhood and childhood] (2014) Ofitsial'nyy sayt Presidenta Rossii [Official site of the president of Russia]. 17.02.2014 [http://www.kremlin.ru/news/20265 ]. Accessed 20.06.2016 (in Russian).