Article Information

THE EVOLUTION OF THE CONCEPT OF CIVILIZATION IN THE SOCIO-HISTORICAL SCIENCE IN THE LATE XVIII — EARLY XX CENTURIES

Ruslan Braslavskiy (r.braslavsky@socinst.ru)

The Sociological Institute of the RAS, Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia

Citation: Braslavskiy R. (2022) Evolyutsiya kontseptsii tsivilizatsii v sotsioistoricheskoy nauke v kontse XVIII — nachale XX veka [The evolution of the concept of civilization in the socio-historical science in the late XVIII — early XX centuries]. Zhurnal sotsiologii i sotsialnoy antropologii [The Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology], 25(2): 49–79 (in Russian). https://doi.org/10.31119/jssa.2022.25.2.3

Abstract. The article traces the emergence of the concept of civilization in the discourse of late Enlightenment and his later reception in social and historical science of the XIX-beginning of XX centuries. The main conceptual innovation associated with the formation of the concept of “civilization” was the opening of the cultural and historical dimension in the human mode of existence, defined through the concept of reason. Universal history of civilization developed by the Enlightenment’s thinkers was the first program of civilizational studies. In sociology the concept of civilization was gradually superseded by the concept of society that gave a different interpretation of “social”, “cultural”, “political” and their relationships, as well as different understanding of human agency. Each of these two concepts sought to be comprehensive and covered himself all spheres of human activity. Both of them restricted the sphere of “political”, subjecting it to non-political factors. But between them was a fundamental difference. If the concept “civilization” focused on culture, products of human activity, the concept “society” did on the social structure and social forms of human interaction. In the first case, the human beings endowed with the qualities of the creators of culture and the subjects of history; in the latter, they were seen as products of social relations, the objects determined by social structure. The key principle of “autonomy of the human reason” pronounced by Enlightenment’s thinkers was replaced by an assumption of “autonomy of the social structure” in sociology.

Keywords: civilization, progress, the Enlightenment, history, sociology, civilizational analysis, modernity, Emile Durkheim.

References

Arnason J.P. (2001) Civilizational Patterns and Civilizing Processes. International Sociology, 16(3): 387–405.

Arnason J.P. (2003) Civilizations in Dispute: Historical Questions and Theoretical Traditions. Leiden; Boston: Brill.

Arnason J.P. (2007). Civilizational Analysis: A Paradigm in the Making. In: Holton R. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS). Oxford: EOLSS Publishers [http://www.eolss.net/ebooks/sample%20chapters/c04/e6-97-01-00.pdf ] (accessed: 24.01.2015)

Arnason J.P. (2015) Elias and Eisenstadt: The Multiple Meanings of Civilisation. Social Imaginaries, 1(2): 146–176.

Bartele P. (2012) Zhozef de Mestr mezhdu “protivopolozhnoy revolyutsiyey” i “protivopolozhnost’yu revolyutsii” [Joseph de Maistre between “opposite revolution” and “opposite to revolution”]. In: Mil’china V., Glod P., Zenkin S., Kohlhauer M. (eds.) Aktual’nost’ Zhozefa de Mestra: Materialy rossiysko-frantsuzskoy konferentsii [Relevance of Joseph de Maistre: Proceedings of the Russian-French conference]. Moscow: RGGU: 51–58 (in Russian).

Benveniste E. (1974) Tsivilizatsiya. K istorii slova (1954) [Civilization. To the history of the word (1954)]. Benveniste E. Obshchaya lingvistika [General linguistics]. Moscow: Progress: 386–396 (in Russian).

Bodeker H.E. (2010) Razmyshleniya o metode istorii ponyatiy [Reflections on the method of history of concepts]. In: Bodeker H.E. (ed.) Istoriya ponyatiy, istoriya diskursa, istoriya mentaliteta [History of concepts, history of discourse, history of mentality]. Moscow: Novoye literaturnoye obozreniye: 34–65 (in Russian).

Boer den P. (2005) Civilization: Comparing Concepts and Identities. Contributions to the History of Concepts, 1(1): 51–62.

Bowden B., Seabrooke L. (eds.) (2006) Global Standards of Market Civilization. London; New York: Routledge.

Buckle G.T. (2000) Istoriya tsivilizatsiy. Istoriya tsivilizatsii v Anglii: t. 1 [History of Civilizations. History of Civilization in England: vol. 1]. Moscow: Mysl’ (in Russian).

Condorcet J. (2010) Eskiz istoricheskoy kartiny chelovecheskogo razuma [Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Spirit]. 2nd ed.Moscow: LIBROKOM (in Russian).

Durkheim E. (1982) Civilisation in General and Types of Civilisation [1902]. In: Durkheim E. The Rules of Sociological Method. New York: The Free Press: 243–244.

Durkheim E. (1990a) O razdelenii obshchestvennogo truda [On the Division of Labour in Society]. In: Durkheim E. O razdelenii obshchestvennogo truda. Metod sotsiologii [On the Division of Labour in Society. Sociological Method]. Moscow: Nauka: 3–390 (in Russian).

Durkheim E. (1990b) Metod sotsiologii [Sociological Method]. In: Durkheim E. O razdelenii obshchestvennogo truda. Metod sotsiologii [On the Division of Labour in Society. Sociological Method]. Moscow: Nauka: 391–532 (in Russian).

Durkheim E. (1995) The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. New York: Free Press.

Durkheim E., Mauss M. (1971) Note on the Notion of Civilization [1913]. Social Research, 38(4): 808–813.

Eisenstadt S.N. (2001) The Civilizational Dimension of Modernity: Modernity as a Distinct Civilization. International Sociology, 16(3): 320–340.

Elias N. (2001) O protsesse tsivilizatsii: Sotsiogeneticheskiye i psikhogeneticheskiye issledovaniya: in 2 t. T. 1: Izmeneniya povedeniya v vysshikh svetskikh krugakh Zapada [The Civilizing Process. Sociogenetic and Psychogenetic Investigations, 2 vols. Vol. I. The History of Manners]. Moscow; St. Petersburg: Universitetskaya kniga.

Febvre L. (1991) Tsivilizatsiya: evolyutsiya slova i gruppy idey (1930) [Civilisation: Evolution of a Word and a Group of Ideas (1930)]. In: Febvre L. Boi za istoriyu [Combats for History]. Moscow: Nauka: 239–281 (in Russian).

Ferguson A. (1995) An Essay on the History of Civil Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ferguson A. (2000) Opyt istorii grazhdanskogo obshchestva [An Essay on the History of Civil Society]. Moscow: ROSSPEN (in Russian).

Foucault M. (2010) Rozhdeniye biopolitiki. Kurs lektsiy, prochitannykh v Kollezh de Frans v 1978 1979 uchebnom godu [The Birth of Bio-Politics: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1978–1979]. St. Petersburg: Nauka (in Russian).

Guizot F. (2007) Istoriya tsivilizatsii v Yevrope [The History of Civilization in Europe]. Moscow: Territoriya budushchego (in Russian).

Gofman A.B. (1990) O sotsiologii Emilya Dyurkgeyma [On the Sociology of Emile Durkheim]. In: Durkheim E. O razdelenii obshchestvennogo truda. Metod sotsiologii [On the Division of Labour in Society. Sociological Method]. Moscow: Nauka: 533–566 (in Russian).

Gofman A.B. (2021) Sotsiologiya morali Emilya Dyurkgeyma: Istoki, printsipy, znacheniye. Vstupitel’naya stat’ya [Emile Durkheim’s Sociology of Morality: Origins, Principles, Meaning. Introductory article]. Dyurkgeym E. Moral’noye vospitaniye [Moral education]. Moscow: Izdatel’skiy dom VSHE: 7–105 (in Russian).

Gong G.W. (2002) Standards of Civilization Today. In: Mozaffari M. (ed.) Globalization and Civilizations. London: Routledge: 77–96.

Gouldner A. (2003) Nastupayushchiy krizis zapadnoy sotsiologii [The Coming Crisis of Western Sociology]. St. Petersburg: Nauka (in Russian).

Heilbron J. (1995) The Rise of Social Theory. Cambridge: Polity.

Khvostov V.M. (2009) Teoriya istoricheskogo protsessa: Ocherki po filosofii i metodologii istorii. Kurs lektsiy [Theory of the Historical Process: Essays on the Philosophy and Methodology of History. Lecture course]. 5th ed. Moscow: LIBROKOM (in Russian).

Kupriyanov V.A., Malinov A.V. (2020) Akademik V.I. Lamanskiy. Materialy k biografii i nauchnoy deyatel’nosti [Academician V.I. Lamansky. Materials for biography and scientific activity]. St. Petersburg: Dmitriy Bulanin (in Russian).

Maistre J. de (1997) Rassuzhdeniya o Frantsii [Considerations on France]. Moscow: ROSSPEN (in Russian).

Mauss M. (2006) Civilizations, Their Elements and Forms [1929/1930]. In: Mauss M. Techniques, Technology and Civilisation. New York; Oxford: Durkheim Press: 54–78.

Smith R. (2008) Istoriya gumanitarnykh nauk [History of the Humanities]. 2nd ed. Moscow: Izdatel’skiy dom GU VSHE (in Russian).

Spenser H. (1997) Sinteticheskaya filosofiya [Synthetic philosophy]. Kiev: Nika-Tsentr (in Russian).

Spenser H. (2014) Politicheskiye sochineniya: 5 t. T. 2: Sotsial’naya statika: izlozheniye sotsial’nykh zakonov, obuslovlivayushchikh schast’ye chelovechestva [Political Writings, 5 vols. Vol. 2: Social Statics: The Conditions Essential to Human Happiness]. Moscow; Chelyabinsk: Sotsium (in Russian).

Starobinski J. (2002) Slovo “tsivilizatsiya” [The word civilization] In: Starobinski J. Poeziya i znaniye. Istoriya literatury i kul’tury [Poetry and knowledge. History of literature and culture]. 2 vols. Vol. 1. Moscow: Yazyki slavyanskoy kul’tury: 110–149 (in Russian).

Tocqueville A. (1893) Vospominaniya [Memories]. Moscow: tipolitografiya V. Rikhter (in Russian).

Turgot A. (2010a) Posledovatel’nyye uspekhi chelovecheskogo razuma [A Philosophical Review of the Successive Advances of the Human Mind]. In: Turgot A. Izbrannyye filosofskiye proizvedeniya [Selected philosophical works]. 2nd ed. Moscow: LIBROKOM: 49–73 (in Russian).

Turgot A. (2010b) Rassuzhdeniye o vseobshchey istorii [Reflections on Universal History]. In: Turgot A. Izbrannyye filosofskiye proizvedeniya, 2-e izd. [Selected philosophical works. 2nd ed.]. Moscow: LIBROKOM: 75–142 (in Russian).

Wagner P. (2008) Sotsial’naya teoriya i politicheskaya filosofiya [Social theory and political philosophy]. Logos [Logos], 6: 56–72 (in Russian).

Wagner P. (2009) Modernity as Experience and as Interpretation: Towards Something like a Cultural Turn in the Sociology of “Modern Society”. In: Hedstrom P., Wittrock B. (eds.) Frontiers of Sociology. Leiden; Boston: Brill: 247–266.

Weber M. (2006) Predvaritel’nyye zamechaniya [Preliminary Remarks]. In: Weber M. Izbrannoye: Protestantskaya etika i dukh kapitalizma [Selected Works: The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism]. Moscow: ROSSPEN: 7–18.

Wittrock B. (2001) Social Theory and Global History: The Three Cultural Crystallizations. Thesis Eleven, 65(1): 27–50.

Wittrock B., Heilbron J., Magnusson L. (1998) The Rise of the Social Sciences and the Formation of Modernity. In: Heilbron J., Magnusson L., Wittrock B. (eds.) The Rise of the Social Sciences and the Formation of Modernity: Conceptual Change in Context, 1750–1850. Dordrecht [Netherlands]; Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers: 1–33.