Article Information

TOURISTS AS VISITORS TO AN ORTHODOX CHURCH TEMPLE: INTERACTION ANALYSIS IN THE HETEROTOPIC SPACE

Nikita Barkevich (nbarkevich@hse.ru)

National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia

Citation: Barkevich N. (2020) Turisty kak posetiteli pravoslavnogo khrama: analiz vzaimodeystviya v prostranstve geterotopii [Tourists as visitors to an Orthodox church temple: interaction analysis in the heterotopic space]. Zhurnal sotsiologii i sotsialnoy antropologii [The Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology], 23(4): 74–102 (in Russian). https://doi.org/10.31119/jssa.2020.23.4.3

Abstract. The article demonstrates the situations and reveals details of the behavior of tourists in an Orthodox church. The space of the temple is defined as heterotopic, in which the sacred and profane can be ambiguous. Similar problems apply to visitors to these spaces. The first part of the article reviews tourist and pilgrim studies, which describe their experiences. Then it is described why the method of fixing such an experience in the work will be the method of ethnomethodological video analysis, which use by research of naturally occurring interactions. A number of video clips as an empirical material, taken in the Refectory Church of the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius, which is visited by tourists during non-liturgics time, is selected. The author focuses on the differences in organized visits as part of the tour and self-examination of the sights and objects of the temple. The order of excursion avoids encounters between tourists and pilgrims in the temple, but outside excursions, pilgrims and shrines of the temple is becoming as an object of tourist interest. A number of tourist actions stand out in the work: photographing, viewing and the making sign of the cross through which they interact with objects in the temple. The role of sequence and distance in the process of such interactions, as well as subsequent and preceding actions, is described on the example of video clips taken near the relics of Maximus the Greek. The author draws conclusions about the situationality, contextuality and practical embodiment of the heterotopy of the sacred and profane in the space of that temple.

Keywords: temple, tourism, excursion, relics, ritual gestures, sacred and profane, videoanalysis. 

References

Andriotis K. (2009) Sacred site experience. Annals of Tourism Research, 36: 64–84.

Asad T. (2011) Chto mogla by predstavlyat' soboj antropologiya sekulyarizma? [What might an anthropology of secular look like?]. Logos [Logos], 3: 56–99 (in Russian).

Bankovskaya S.P. (2016) Videosociologiya: teoreticheskie i metodologicheskie osnovaniya [Video-Sociology: Theoretical and Methodological Foundations]. Sotsiologicheskoye obozreniye [Russian Sociological Review], 15(2): 129–166 (in Russian).

Bauman Z. (1995) Ot palomnika k turistu [From Pilgrim to Tourist]. Sotsiologicheskiy Zhurnal [Sociological Journal], 4: 133–154 (in Russian).

Berns S. (2016) Considering the glass case: Material encounters between museums, visitors and religious objects. Journal of Material Culture, 21: 153–168.

Blackwell R. (2010) Motivation for pilgrimage: using theory to explore motivations. Scripta Instituti Donneriani Aboensis, 22: 24–37.

Boorstin D.J. (1992) The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-events in America. New York: Vintage Books.

Buggeln G.T., Paine C., Plate S.B. (eds.) (2017) Religion in museums: global and multidisciplinary perspectives. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

Chen V. (2016) A Phenomenology Research on Chinese Tourists’ Travel Experience to Pilgrimage Places. The Proceedings of Hong Kong 2016: 2nd Global Tourism & Hospitality Conference and 15th Asia Pacific Forum for Graduate Students Research in Tourism. Vol. I. Hong Kong: 431–449.

Cohen E. (1974) Who is a Tourist?: A Conceptual Clarification. London: Keele University.

Collins-Kreiner N. (2010) Researching pilgrimage. Annals of Tourism Research, 37: 440–456.

Crang M. (1997) Picturing practices: research through the tourist gaze. Progress in Human Geography, 21: 359–373.

Crouch D., Aronsson L., Wahlström L. (2001) Tourist encounters. Tourist Studies, 1: 253–270.

Curtis S. (2016) English Cathedrals: events and spiritual capital. International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage, 4(2): 1–11.

Dann G., Cohen E. (1991) Sociology and tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 18: 155–169.

Dehaene M., Cauter L.D. (2008) Heterotopia and the City: Public Space in a Postcivil Society. London; New York: Routledge.

Diamantopoulou S., Christidou D. (2019) Museum encounters: a choreography of visitors’ bodies in interaction. Museum Management and Curatorship, 34: 344–361.

Digance J. (2006) Religious and secular pilgrimage: Journeys redolent with meaning. In: Timothy D., Olsen D. (eds.) Tourism, Religion and Spiritual Journeys. London: Routledge: 36–48.

Foucault M., Miskowiec J. (1986) Of Other Spaces. Diacritics 16: 22–27.

Filippov A.F. (2008) Sociologiya prostranstva [The Sociology of Space]. St. Petersburg: Vladimir Dal (in Russian).

Golovkov M. (2007) Cerkovnyj protocol [The Church Protocol]. Moscow: Izdatel'skij sovet Russkoj pravoslavnoj cerkvi (in Russian).

Gutic J., Caie E., Clegg A. (2010) In search of heterotopia? Motivations of visitors to an English cathedral. International Journal of Tourism Research, 12: 750–760.

Heath C., Hindmarsh J., Luff P. (2010) Video in Qualitative Research: Analysing Social Interaction in Everyday Life. London: SAGE Publications.

Higgins L., Hamilton K. (2020) Pilgrimage, material objects and spontaneous communitas. Annals of Tourism Research, 81: 102855.

Jensen M.T. (2016) Distorted representation in visual tourism research. Current Issues in Tourism. 19: 545–563.

Jiang T., Ryan C., Zhang C. (2018) The spiritual or secular tourist? The experience of Zen meditation in Chinese temples. Tourism Management, 65: 187–199.

Korbut A.M. (2012) Video socio [Video socio]. Sotsiologicheskoye obozreniye [Russian Sociological Review], 11 (2): 154–163 (in Russian).

Kormina Zh.V. (2019) Palomniki: etnograficheskie ocherki pravoslavnogo nomadizma [Pilgrims: Ethnographic Sketches of the Orthodox Nomadism]. Moscow: HSE Publishing House (in Russian).

Knoblauch H., Schnettler B. (2009) Video Analysis: Methodology and Methods: Qualitative Audiovisual Data Analysis in Sociology, Bern: Peter Lang.

Knoblauch H. Videografiya: fokusirovannaya etnografiya i videoanaliz [Videography. Focused Ethnography and Video Analysis]. In: Romanov P.V., Yarskaya-Smirnova E.R. (eds.) Vizual'naya antropologiya: nastroyka optiki [Visual Anthropology: Tuning the Lens]. M.: Variant; CSPGS:19–36 (in Russian).

Knoblauch H., Schnettler B. (2015) Video and Vision: Videography of a Marian Apparition. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 44: 636–656.

Koschmann T., Stahl G., Zemel A. (2007) The video analyst’s manifesto (or the implications of Garfinkel’s policies for the development of a program of video analytic research within the learning sciences). In: Goldman R., Pea R., Barron B., Derry S. (Eds.). Video research in the learning sciences. New Jersay: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: 133–144.

MacCannell D. (1999) The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class. California: University of California Press.

McKercher B., Cros H. du (2003) Testing a cultural tourism typology. International Journal of Tourism Research, 5: 45–58.

Nilsson M., Tesfahuney M. (2016) Performing the “post-secular” in Santiago de Compostela. Annals of Tourism Research, 57: 18–30.

Pauwels L. Etika syemki i ispol'zovaniya izobrazheniy s lyud'mi kak problema dlya vizual'nogo issledovatelya [The Ethics of Picturing People and Using People’s Pictures: a Visual Researcher’s Dilemma]. In: Romanov P.V., Yarskaya-Smirnova E.R. (eds.) Vizual'naya antropologiya: nastroyka optiki [Visual Anthropology: Tuning the Lens]. Moscow: Variant; CSPGS: 126–148 (in Russian).

Petrova A.A., Shmitt R., Shtulberg O.E. (2018) Partisipativnaya ritual'nost': mul'timodal'noe issledovanie religioznoj kommunikacii v prostranstve cerkvi [Participative Rituality: Multimodal Research on Religious Communication in the Church Interior]. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya 2: Yazykoznanie [Science Journal of Volgograd State University. Linguistics], 17(3): 210–222 (in Russian).

Raj R., Griffin K.A. (2015) Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage Management. 2nd edition. Wallingford: An International Perspective, CABI.

Rinschede G. (1992) Forms of religious tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 19: 51–67.

Roseman E.B., Badone E. (2004) Intersecting Journeys: The Anthropology of Pilgrimage and Tourism. Illinois: University of Illinois Press.

Roszak P. (2019) Sacred and Space in Post-Secular Pilgrimage: The Camino de Santiago and Relational Model of the Sacred. International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage, 7(5): 33–40.

Shackley M. (2002) Space, sanctity and service; the English Cathedral as heterotopia. International Journal of Tourism Research, 4: 345–352.

Suchmen L. (2019) Rekonfiguracii otnoshenij chelovek — mashina. Plany i situativnye dejstviya [Human-Machine Reconfigurations. Plans and Situated Actions], Moscow: Elementarnye formy (in Russian).

Smith V.L. (1992) Introduction: The quest in guest. Annals of Tourism Research, 19: 1–17.

Soja E.W. (1996) Thirdspace: Journeys to Los Angeles and Other Real-and-Imagined Places. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers.

Terzidou M., Scarles C., Saunders M.N.K. (2018) The complexities of religious tourism motivations: Sacred places, vows and visions. Annals of Tourism Research, 70: 54–65.

Thrift N. (2008) Non-Representational Theory: Space, Politics, Affect. New York: Routledge.

Urry J. (2008) Globalising the Tourist Gaze. In: Sutheeshna B. S., Mishra S., Parida B.B. (eds.) Tourism Development Revisited: Concepts, Issues and Paradigms, New York: SAGE Publications: 150–160.

Urry J., Larsen J. (2011) The Tourist Gaze 3.0. London; New York: SAGE Publications.

Wang N. (1999) Rethinking authenticity in tourism experience. Annals of Tourism Research, 26: 349–370.

Wilson K. (2020) Place and Space in Walking Pilgrimage. International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage, 8(1): 31–10.

Xu K. (2015) Types of red tourists in China: Evidence from Shaoshan. Annals of Tourism Research, 51: 57–59.

Yarskaya-Smirnova E.R., Romanov P.V. (2009) Vzglyady i obrazy: metodologiya, analiz, praktika [Views and Images: Methodology, Analysis, Practice]. In: Romanov P.V., Yarskaya-Smirnova E.R. (eds.) (2009) Vizual'naya antropologiya: nastroyka optiki [Visual Anthropology: Tuning the Lens]. Moscow: Variant; CSPGS: 7–17 (in Russian).

Zaporozhets O., Lavrinets J. (2009) Khoreografiya bespokoystva v tranzitnykh mestakh: k voprosu o novom ponimanii vizual'nosti [Choreography of Anxiety in Transitive Places: Representational Approach Revised]. In: Romanov P.V., Yarskaya-Smirnova E.R. (eds.) Vizual'naya Antropologiya: gorodskiye karty pamyati [Visual Anthropology: Urban Memory Cards / Mental Maps]. Moscow: Variant; CSPGS: 45–66 (in Russian).