This article analyses the role of elites’ “historical policy” in shaping the national identity of post-socialist countries. It is concluded that, instead of a positive program for the formation of national identity, instead of searching for a compromise in the interpretation of complex and tragic episodes of common history, recognition of common responsibility for them or their common “forgetting”, political and intellectual elites of most post-socialist countries, by contrast, do everything for their updating and politicization, creating and conceptualizing myths for the mass consciousness, giving the appearance of the scientific validity to the primitive xenophobia.

Keywords: political and intellectual elites, collective memory, national narrative, national identity, politics of memory, politicization of history, “the war of interpretations”